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Engr 301 Assignment Definition

Question 1. How do the concepts of green design, industrial ecology and sustainable development differ from the past approaches to environmental design? Prepare a brief report on this topic, using some specific examples for illustration. Earlier engineers were not as concerned about the environmental impacts of the approaches they used as today’s engineers are. One of the main reasons was the lack of education and awareness about the harmful effect on the environment. As technology advances we become more aware of the environment around us. Since the wellbeing of environment wasn’t taken into account, many past approaches caused severe damage to the environment, due to these a lot of natural resources were compromised .Considering all the past mistakes done by engineers, nowadays engineers are more aware of the environmental impacts of their approaches, so they use concepts such as green design, industrial ecology, and sustainable development to protect the environment from any further harm. The idea of green design demands engineers to do their jobs with minimal environmental damage. Among other concerns, this concept is concerned with energy use. Engineers can lower the harmful effects on the environment by using renewable energy sources. In the past wind power and solar energy wasn’t used to anything except for experiments however these days wind power and solar power are widely spreading around the world. On the other side public transports and automobiles companies are also focusing on green design which can have as low impact as possible on environment. In , the concept of industrial ecology was defined by Gradel and Allenby as “the concept behind Industrial ecology is humanity can deliberately and rationally approach and maintain a desirable carrying capacity, given continued economic, cultural and technological evolution”. This concept revolves around recycling, remanufacturing and reusing. Enhancing the use of a material starts from the raw material to the final product, during this process the final product is recycled and reused until reaches the limit of disposal. For instance IBM in Germany are required by law to take back their electronic goods which may have negative impact on environment and this has given an opportunity to IBM to recycle their material which will help them make new materials easier and faster. The World Commission on Environment and Development defined the concept of sustainable development in to be the “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Factors being optimised are not restricted to the material but also refer to energy, capital and resources. Both sustainable development and industrial development are based on limiting the resources we use today. In the past the concept of recycle wasn’t even introduced and people used to throw their equipment and other goods which had negative impact on environment such as pollution and global warming, however these days in all the areas the concept of recycling has been introduced and advanced. For instance the purpose of manufacturing or energy generation fossil fuels are not preferred, rather other renewable methods are favoured like solar power, wind power and hydroelectric power. This is due to the advancement of industrial ecology. Question 2. Using the Canadian National Pollutant Release Inventory (through the Environment Canada Website; woaknb.wz.sk‐npri/ ), choose any 3 chemicals and determine their quantities released to the air, water and land. Also determine the Canadian guideline values for those pollutants (http://st‐ Chemical Quantity released to AIR in tonnes Quantity released to WATER in tonnes 21 Quantity released to LAND in tonnes 1. Aluminum (fumes or dust) 2. Chlorine 3. Benzene Canadian Guideline value for: 1. Aluminum: Water Quality for the protection of aquatic life: Fresh Water Concentration (μg/L) 5 µg/L if pH < µg/L if pH ≥ Marine Concentration (μg/L) No data Water Quality for the protection of agriculture: Irrigation Concentration (μg/L) Livestock Concentration (μg/L) Please note there is no data available for Aluminum on sediment quality for the protection of aquatic life, soil quality for the protection of environment and human health and air quality for the protection of human health and the environment. 2. Chlorine (Reactive Chlorine Species): Water Quality for the protection of aquatic life: Fresh Water Concentration (μg/L) Marine Concentration (μg/L) Please note there is no data available for Chlorine on water quality for the protection of agriculture, sediment quality for the protection of aquatic life, soil quality for the protection of environment and human health and air quality for the protection of human health and the environment. 3. Benzene Water Quality for the protection of aquatic life: Fresh Water Concentration (μg/L) Marine Concentration (μg/L) Soil Quality for the protection of Environmental and Human Health: Concentration (mg/kg dry weight) – Agricultural & Residential/parkland Guideline Benzene (mg/kg) Incremental Risk – Surface (≤m) Incremental Risk – Subsoil (>m) Incremental Risk – Surface (≤m) Incremental Risk – Subsoil (>m) Coarse Fine Concentration (mg/kg dry weight) – Commercial and Industrial Please note there is no data available for Benzene on sediment quality for the protection of aquatic life and air quality for the protection of human health and the environment. Guideline Benzene (mg/kg) Incremental Risk – Surface (≤m) Incremental Risk – Subsoil (>m) Incremental Risk – Surface (≤m) Incremental Risk – Subsoil (>m) Coarse Fine Question 3: Table gave an estimate of the remaining world resources of selected nonrenewable materials. Select any one of the listed commodities with a life index of less than years. Investigate the major uses of that material, and analyze the implications of its projected scarcity in the future. Include a discussion of any likely substitutes for the material or its applications. As mentioned in the table in Robin’s book, the data was presented in the year and it has been 12 year already so the remaining years for lead are 26 years which is unimaginably less. Mostly the lead is used to make batteries for trucks, batteries and other vehicles; it is also for soldering, bearings, wheel weights and other parts of the automobiles. Lead also plays an important role in electronics and communications; it is used for emergency power battery, ammunition, television glass, construction and protective coatings. It is also used in medical science to make protective aprons for patients to shield the body from excess x-rays radiation. Considering all the major uses of lead, it is hard to avoid the use of lead but in order to prolong life of lead we have to use different metal to accomplish our desires. Lead has been playing one of the important role in human evolution, lead has made our life easier however considering the remaining life of lead which is only 26 years. It is important for manufacturer and engineers to use the substitutes in order to extend the life of lead and current substitute which are available on earth for more than years are iron, tin and plastics. All these alternates are replacing lead in many industries such as in containers, packaging, construction materials and automobile parts. Other metals such as tin are also being used to replace lead in soldering applications. Question: 4 Investigate the estimate resource base if the world energy supplies of either crude oil or natural gas(choose one). One useful website is the energy information administration of the US department of energy (woaknb.wz.sk). Comment on when or whether we might be “running out” of this non-renewable resource based on the current estimates. Also discuss whether the environmental implications of the future energy resource extraction might change because of the location or difficulty of exploiting the remaining reserves. Summarize your finding in a brief report. Crude oil is one of the demanded natural energy available, which is also known as petroleum. Crude oil is a fossil fuel which means it is naturally made from decaying animals and plants centuries ago. Crude oil has color of clear to tar-black and is also available from liquid to almost solid state. Currently, our world is highly dependent on crude oil as it is used as a raw material to be processed by refineries into gasoline, diesel fuel, and airplane fuel. Crude oil is considered as one of the non-renewable energy sources; therefore we might run out of crude oil at any time. However, crude oil has insignificant recovery rate with respect to the time taken in the extraction and consumption process, and is considered a limited, diminishing energy resource. According to Dr. Birol, “one day we will run out of oil, the earlier we start the better because all of our economics and social system is based on oil so to change from that will take a lot of time and a lot of money and we should take this issue very seriously. There is now a real risk of a crunch in the oil supply after next year when demand picks up because not enough is being done to build up new supplies of oil to compensate for the rapid decline in existing fields. The IEA estimates in that the decline in oil production in existing fields is now running at per cent a year compared to the per cent decline it had estimated in ” [3]. However oil might be available in long future but it will be extremely expensive. The graph below clearly shows the demand of the crude oil and price of the crude oil as the demand increases the price increases. In order to avoid extinction of crude oil, engineers and manufacturers have to look for alternate energy recourses such as hydroelectric power which produces electricity by water falling, through turbine blades. Power is generated first by storing water in a reservoir next to a dam on a river. Solar Power Energy comes from either Thermal Solar or Photovoltaic. When materials are heated by the sun to produce heat that can be used or stored referred to as Thermal Solar Power. Nuclear Energy is the second largest source of electricity. Producing nuclear energy, works when Uranium atom is bombarded with neutrons. [4] References: [1] woaknb.wz.sk [2] woaknb.wz.sk [3] woaknb.wz.sk [4] woaknb.wz.sk‐npri [5] woaknb.wz.sk

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BUILDING ENGINEERING

BLDG         Building Engineering Drawing and Introduction to Design (3 credits)
Fundamentals of technical drawing, dimensioning practices, orthographic projections, auxiliary and sectional views of buildings. Theory and applications of descriptive geometry in building design. Computer-aided building drawing. Building sub-systems and related graphics standards; architectural and building engineering drawing at preliminary and final stages. Introduction to the design of light-frame buildings. Project: representation of a building and its sub-systems. Introduction to conceptual design. Lectures: three hours per week. Tutorial: two hours per week.

BLDG         Building Engineering Systems (3 credits)
Prerequisite: BCEE previously or concurrently. Introduction to systematic solution of building engineering problems. Techniques treated include linear programming, network analysis, nonlinear programming. Introduction to decision analysis and simulation. Application of optimization methods for solution of design problems in building science, building environment, building structures, and construction management, taking into account sustainability issues. Lectures: three hours per week.

BLDG         Building Science ( credits)
Prerequisite: ENGR General introduction to the thermal environment and sustainable development issues. Topics include heat, temperature, one-dimensional steady-state processes. Convection: natural and forced. Radiation. Combined radiative and convective surface transfer. Psychrometrics. Thermal comfort. Air quality. Condensation: surface and interstitial. Introduction to compressible viscous flow, friction, and flow in pipes; boundary layer and wind effects. Lectures: three hours per week. Tutorial: one hour per week. Laboratory: two hours per week, alternate weeks.

BLDG         Acoustics and Lighting ( credits)
Prerequisite: ENGR General introduction to the aural and visual environment. Psychological impact of environment. Subjective and objective scales of measurement. Introduction to vibration. The hearing mechanism. Transmission of sound, passive control of noise in buildings, transmission loss, absorption and reverberation time. Room acoustic assessment. Active control of the aural environment. Visual perception. Photometry, brightness, luminance, and illumination. Concept of natural lighting in building. Artificial lighting; light sources; luminaries. Calorimetry. Calculation methods for artificial lighting. Lectures: three hours per week. Tutorial: one hour per week. Laboratory: two hours per week, alternate weeks.

BLDG         Building Service Systems ( credits)
Prerequisite: BLDG previously or concurrently. Principles of building service systems, including electrical, gas, communications, service-water supply and distribution; introduction to plans, codes, and standards for utility distribution systems. Lectures: three hours per week. Laboratory: two hours per week, alternate weeks.

BLDG         Building Engineering Design Project ( credits)
Prerequisite: BLDG ; ENCS ; BCEE previously or concurrently. The project of each team will encompass the conceptual and preliminary design of a new medium-size building. Students learn building engineering design process, methodology, identification of objectives, building codes, formulation of design problems. Development and evaluation of sustainable building design alternatives. Conceptual building design: spatial requirements, design of space layout. Preliminary building design: synthesis and design of structures, enclosure systems, and services (HVAC, lighting, electrical distribution) using computer-aided design tools. Performance evaluation using modelling, sensitivity analysis and cost estimation. Lectures: three hours per week. Laboratory: two hours per week, alternate weeks.

BLDG         Modern Building Materials (3 credits)
Prerequisite: CIVI Engineering properties of building materials such as: plastics, synthetic fibres, adhesives, sealants, caulking compounds, foams, sandwich panels, composites, polymer concrete systems, fibre-reinforced concretes, plastic mortars, polymers for flooring, roofing, synthetic wall papers. Their structural, thermal, and acoustical properties. Consideration of corrosion, bio- and thermal-degradation, stability to ultraviolet and solar radiation. Laboratory sessions to illustrate synthesis, application, testing, deterioration, and protection. Lectures: three hours per week.

BLDG         Building Envelope Design (3 credits)
Prerequisite: BLDG ; CIVI Technical influences in the design of building envelope, including the control of heat flow, air and mois­ture penetration, building movements, and deterioration. Application of air/vapour barrier and rain-screen systems. Performance assessment and building codes through case studies and design projects. Sustainable design principles. Design of walls, roofs, joints and assemblies. Cause of deterioration and preventive measures, on-site investigation. Relevant building codes and standards. Lectures: three hours per week.

BLDG         Fire and Smoke Control in Buildings (3 credits)
Prerequisite: BLDG Topics treated include fire and smoke control; failure mechanisms of building enclosure illustrated by case studies; code requirements for enclosure systems; systems approach for fire safety. Lectures: three hours per week.

BLDG         HVAC System Design (4 credits)
Prerequisite: BLDG ; BLDG previously or concurrently. Principles of HVAC system design and analysis; sustainable design issues and impact on environment; component and system selection criteria including room air distribution, fans and air circulation, humidifying and dehumidifying processes, piping and ducting design. Air quality standards. Control systems and techniques; operational economics; computer applications. Lectures: three hours per week. Laboratory: two hours per week.

BLDG         Building Energy Conservation Technologies (3 credits)
Prerequisite: BLDG previously or concurrently. Standards of energy efficiency in woaknb.wz.sk in energy consumption. Energy audit: evaluation of energy performance of existing buildings, weather normalization methods, measurements, disaggregation of total energy consumption, use of computer models, impact of people behaviour. Energy efficiency measures in buildings: approaches, materials and equipments, operating strategies, evaluation methods of energy savings. Renewable energy sources: passive or active solar systems, geothermal systems, free-cooling. Optimum selection of energy sources. Impact of emerging technologies. Case studies. Lectures: three hours per week.

BLDG         Building Acoustics (3 credits)
Prerequisite: BLDG Noise control criteria and regulations, instrumentation, noise sources, room acoustics, walls, barriers and enclosures, acoustical materials and structures, vibration and noise control systems for buildings. Lectures: three hours per week.

BLDG         Building Illumination and Daylighting (3 credits)
Prerequisite: BLDG Production, measurement and control of light. Photometric quantities, visual perception and colour theory. Daylight and artificial illumination systems. Radiative transfer, fixture and lamp characteristics, control devices and energy conservation techniques. Design of lighting systems. Solar energy utilization and daylighting. Integration of lighting systems with mechanical systems for energy conservation and sustainable development. Lectures: three hours per week.

BLDG         Indoor Air Quality (3 credits)
Prerequisite: BLDG previously or concurrently. Elements of indoor air quality, physical/ chemical characteristics of contaminants, health effects, standard requirements. Estimation of the levels of indoor air contaminants in buildings. Design of ventilation systems for pollutant control. Air pollution due to outdoor air supply through ventilation systems. Effect of outdoor air pollution on indoor air quality. Lectures: three hours per week.

BLDG         Thermal Analysis of Buildings (3 credits)
Prerequisite: BLDG ; ENGR Two- and three-dimensional steady-state and transient conductive heat transfer together with convection and radiation as applied to building materials and geometries. Heating and cooling load analysis, including building shapes, construction type, solar radiation, infiltration, occupancy effects, and daily load variations. Computer applications for thermal load analysis. Introduction to heat exchangers. Lectures: three hours per week. Tutorial: one hour per week.

BLDG         Control Systems in Buildings (3 credits)
Prerequisite: BLDG previously or concurrently. Introduction to automatic control systems. Control issues related to energy conservation, indoor air quality and thermal comfort in buildings. Classification of HVAC control systems. Control system hardware: selection and sizing of sensors, actuators and controllers. Practical HVAC control systems; elementary local loop and complete control systems. Designing and tuning of controllers. Building automation systems. Case studies. Lectures: three hours per week.

BLDG         Project Management for Construction (3 credits)
Prerequisite: BLDG or CIVI Introduction to project management techniques in construction, including project delivery methods, construction contracts, cost estimating and bidding planning and sched­uling, cash flow analysis, project tracking and control, computer applications. Lectures: three hours per week.
 
BLDG         Impact of Technology on Society and Architecture (3 credits)
Prerequisite: 20 courses in the BEng program. History of architecture as the confluence of social and technological evolution. Methodology and thought processes in the theory and design of cities and the human habitat. Impact of technology on society. Energy conservation, environmental constraints and sustainability issues. Lectures: three hours per week.

BLDG         Capstone Building Engineering Design Project (4 credits)
Prerequisite: Minimum of 75 credits in the BEng (Bldg) program including ENCS ; BCEE , ; BLDG , ; ENGR The project of each team encompasses the integrated design of at least three sub-systems of a new or retro-fitted building to achieve high performance and efficiency at reasonable cost; sustainable design and environmental impact issues are addressed in all projects. In the process, students learn, through case studies and literature survey, the information gathering and decision/design process, problem-resolution as well as aspects related to management, teamwork and communication. Students registering for this course must contact the course coordinator for the detailed procedure. Lectures: two hours per week, two terms.

BLDG A     Capstone Building Engineering Design Project (4 credits)
Prerequisite: Minimum of 75 credits in the BEng (Bldg) program including ENCS ; BCEE , ; BLDG , ; ENGR The project of each team encompasses the integrated design of at least three sub-systems of a new or retro-fitted building to achieve high performance and efficiency at reasonable cost; sustainable design and environmental impact issues are addressed in all projects. In the process, students learn, through case studies and literature survey, the information gathering and decision/design process, problem-resolution as well as aspects related to management, teamwork and communication. Students registering for this course must contact the course coordinator for the detailed procedure. Lectures: two hours per week, two terms.

BLDG B     Capstone Building Engineering Design Project (4 credits)
Prerequisite: Minimum of 75 credits in the BEng (Bldg) program including ENCS ; BCEE , ; BLDG , ; ENGR The project of each team encompasses the integrated design of at least three sub-systems of a new or retro-fitted building to achieve high performance and efficiency at reasonable cost; sustainable design and environmental impact issues are addressed in all projects. In the process, students learn, through case studies and literature survey, the information gathering and decision/design process, problem-resolution as well as aspects related to management, teamwork and communication. Students registering for this course must contact the course coordinator for the detailed procedure. Lectures: two hours per week, two terms.

BLDG         Labour and Industrial Relations in Construction (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ENGR The study of labour legislation with special emphasis on the construction industry, union organization, the theory and practice of negotiations, mediation, contract administration, and arbitration. Review of actual contracts, discussion of future trends. Lectures: three hours per week.

BLDG         Construction Processes (3 credits)
Prerequisite: BCEE or ENGR A study of current construction methods and techniques. The subjects include site preparation and earth-work, wood framing, masonry, concrete forming, slip forming, precast construction, industrialized building, deep excavation shoring and underpinning. Design, erection, and removal of temporary construction work. Current field practice and safety considerations. Site visits. Lectures: three hours per week.

BLDG         Legal Issues in Construction (3 credits)
Prerequisite: ENGR Legal concepts and processes applicable to the development of constructed facilities and to the operation of the construction firm. Emphasis on Quebec law and institutions. Lectures: three hours per week.

BLDG         Topics in Building Engineering (3 credits)
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department. This course may be offered in a given year upon the authorization of the Department. The course content may vary from offering to offering and will be chosen to complement the available elective courses. Lectures: three hours per week.

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