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music dictionary : Su - Sz

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s.u.(German) siehe unten, see below
su, sull', sulla, sui, sugli, sulle(Italian) by, on, near, up, above, upon
Suabe-flutea sweet liquid-toned organ stop
Su Alteza Real(Spanish) His Royal Higness, Her Royal Highness
Su Alteza Real Doña Cristina asistió al concierto inaugural (Spanish: Her Royal Highness the Princess Cristina attended the opening concert)
su ámbito de poder es reducido(Spanish) he has a limited field of influence
Suantraisee sean nos
suave(French, Italian) sweet, mild, agreeable, pleasant, urbane, soothing in manner
(Spanish) smooth, p, piano
suavemente(Italian) sweetly, pleasantly, gently
suavísimo(Spanish) pp, pianissimo, very soft
suavísimo suave(Spanish) ppp, pianississimo, very soft
Suavità(Italian f.) suavity, sweetness, delicacy
sub(Latin) under, below, beneath
sub.abbreviation of subito
Subahdar(Hindi, from Arabic) the governor of an Indian province, the native warrent-officer of a company of sepoys
sub anno(Latin) under the year (always followed by a date, with reference to an entry in a chronicle or a series of annals)
Subbassa pedal stop in the organ of 16ft. or 32ft. double-stopped pipes, or sometimes of open wood pipes of 16 ft.
Subbass clefor contrabass clef, chiave di basso profondo (Italian f.), Subbassschlüssel (German m.), clé de fa 5e, (French f.), clef de fa 5e, (French f.), clave de fa en quinta (Spanish f.)
a 'so-called' F clef, also known as the contrabass clef
Subbotnik(Russian) an organized project of voluntary public service
Subbourdona pedal stop in the organ of 16ft. or 32ft. stopped pipes
Sub-chantera precentor's deputy, in a cathedral choir
sub conditione(Latin) conditionally
Sub-contra basssee 'bass guitar'
Sub-contra octavesee 'octave'
Sub-deacona member of the order of the ministry below that of deacon; considered to be the lowest of the major orders
Subdiapente(Latin, from the Greek, literally, 'under fifth') the fourth note of any scale or key, the sub-dominant
Subdivisionbreaking up a larger metrical pattern into smaller parts, the easier to understand it
Subdominant(English, Swedish, Danish, Dutch) sottodominante (Italian), Subdominante (German), Unterdominante (German), sous-dominante (French), the fourth degree of the major or minor scale, so-named because it is a fifth below the tonic, while the dominant is the fifth above the tonic
[corrected by Sze-Howe Koh]
Subdominant chordthe chord which uses as its root the subdominant note of a key, that is, the IV chord
Subdominante(German f., Spanish m.) the fourth degree of the scale, sous-dominante (French)
Subdominant seventh chorda seventh chord built on the fourth degree of the scale, IV
Subdominantti(Finnish) the fourth degree of the scale
Subdominant triadtriad built on the fourth degree of the scale
Sub-five chordsor sub-V chords, an alternative name for tritone substitutions
Subharmonic seriesa series of pitches of which a note might itself be a harmonic, even if they are not present in the note, The series is generated by dividing the frequency F of a note by the integers, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc. Thus the subharmonics series begins: F, F/2, F/3, F/4, F/5, F/6, and so on
Subinga bamboo Jew's harp of the Cuyinin People of the Palawan Island in western Philippines
subit (m.), subite (f.)(French) sudden
subitamente(Italian) suddenly, immediately, without pause, at once
subitement(French) suddenly
subito(Italian) quick, sudden, immediately, suddenly, without pause, at once
Subito le double plus lent(although Subito deux fois plus lent would be more correct French) suddenly half the speed
Subjectsujet (French), soggetto (Italian), Thema (German), Motiv (German), Satz (German), sujeto (Spanish)
(English) the principal theme, an important thematic element in 'formal' music, for example, in fugal form, sonata form, variation form, and so on
Subjective fundamentalalso known as 'missing fundamental', 'suppressed fundamental' or 'phantom fundamental', an effect produced by the beating of the various harmonics of the sound of a musical instrument that help to reinforce the pitch of the fundamental frequency. Most musical instruments produce a fundamental frequency plus several higher notes (tones) which are whole-number multiples of the fundamental. The beat frequencies between the successive harmonics constitute subjective notes (tones) which are at the same frequency as the fundamental and therefore reinforce the sense of pitch of the fundamental note being played, even if, for reasons of poor fidelity or filtering of the sound reproduction equipment, the fundamental itself is either missing or very weak
Subjective genitivea genitive case common in Greek grammar in which the genitive functions as the origin or source (or subject) of the entire grammatical construction
Subjekt(German n.) the principal theme
subjir el diapasón(Spanish) to raise the tone of one's voice
sub judice(Latin) before a court of law, not yet decided, unsettled
Subjunctive moodin grammar, the subjunctive mood is a verb mood typically used in dependent clauses to express wishes, commands, emotion, possibility, judgment, opinion, necessity, or statements that are contrary to fact at present. It is sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood, as it often follows a conjunction. The details of subjunctive use vary from language to language
Subkontra-Oktave(German f.) see 'octave'
Sublime, Theterm that came into general use in the 18th-century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the 'Picturesque' and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. The outstanding work on the concept of the 'Sublime' in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (). This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. The cult of the 'Sublime' had varied expressions in the visual arts, notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer, John Milton, and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard, whose verses - actually fabrications - were published in the s to great acclaim). The vogue for the 'Sublime', with that for the 'Picturesque', helped shape the attitudes that led to 'Romanticism'
Sub lite(Latin) in dispute
Sublunarythe area of the cosmos inside the orbit of the moon, including the earth. In medieval and Renaissance theology, this area was thought to be imperfect and subject to decay, death and mutability, while the stars, planets, heavenly bodies, and celestial realms were "fixed," i.e., perfect, unchanging, and immune to death and decay. In early Christian cosmology, it was believed that the earth was similarly perfect and unchanging until Adam's fall from grace, after which old age, erosion, unstable weather, decay, and mutability appeared in the sublunary realm
Submediant(English, Dutch, Danish, Swedish) or superdominant (English), sopradominante (Italian), Submediante (German), Untermediante (German), sus-dominante (French), submediante (Spanish), superdominante (Spanish), the sixth degree of the scale, named submediant because it is a third below the tonic (as opposed to the mediant which is a third above the tonic) or named superdominant because it is one degree above the dominant
Submediant chordthe chord which uses as its root the submediant note of a key, that is, the VI chord
Submediante(German f.) submediant, the sixth degree of the scale, also called superdominante
Submediant seventh chord with raised root and thirda diminished seventh chord built on the raised sixth scale degree of a major scale. The chord usually resolves to the dominant triad or seventh chord in first inversion
Submediant triadtriad built on the sixth degree of the scale
Subnotatio(Latin) subscription
Suboctavethe octave below a given note
a coupler in an organ that produces notes one octave lower either on the same manual or on a different one
Suboissubois is a play on the word hautbois (oboe) which literally means 'high wood'. Subois means 'under wood'. It is a hybrid of the bombarde and a rustic oboe and is made exclusively by Hervieux & Glet. It is basically a rustic oboe body altered enough to be in tune when played with a tenor bombarde reed. The sound is indeed somewhere between a bombarde and an oboe, but leaning more toward the oboe
Subordinate chordstriads built on the second, third, sixth and seventh degrees of the scale, as well as all seventh chords except the dominant seventh
see 'secondary chords'
Subordinate themein rondo-form, the section that lies between the repeated performances of the principal theme or refrain
Subovatenearly in the form of an egg, or of the section of an egg
sub. p.abbreviation of subito piano, 'suddenly quiet'
Subplota minor or subordinate secondary plot, often involving a deuteragonist's struggles, which takes place simultaneously with a larger plot, usually involving the protagonist. The subplot often echoes or comments upon the direct plot either directly or obliquely. Sometimes two opening subplots merge into a single storyline later in a play or narrative
Subpoena(Latin) under the penalty of law
subpoena ad testificum(Latin) a writ directed to a person commanding him or her, under a penalty, to appear before a Court and give evidence
sub prelo(Latin) in the press
Subprincipala subbass organ pedal organ stop of 32ft. pitch or of 16 ft. pitch on the manuals
sub rosa(Latin, 'under the rose') privately, secretly, in strict confidence
Subscripta small letter, number or symbol placed below a standard sized letter of number (for example, S2, where 2 is the subscript)
Subsemifusa(Latin) a demisemiquaver
Subsemitonethe leading note, a semitone below the key note
Subsemitonium modi(Latin) the leading note
Subsidebecome tranquil, abate (excitement subsided), (of water etc.) sink, (of the ground) cave in, sink
sub siglio(Latin) under the seal (of confession), in inviolable confidence
sub silentio(Latin) in silence, without making any remark, without paying any attention
Substantivea substantive word or phrase is one that can functoin as a noun within a sentence or clause
Substantive adjectivean adjective that stands by itself in the place of an implied noun, a type of rhetorical ellipsis
Substantive texta text based upon access to an original manuscript as opposed to a text derived only from an earlier edition
Substratum (s.), Substrata (pl.)(Latin) a layer of one substance beneath another, a basis, a foundation
Substitute chordsee 'substitution'
Substitute clausulaone passage (or several) composed as a replacement for a segment of Notre Dame organum, in which the tenor uses a short excerpt of plainchant, possibly melismatic, with newly composed organal voice(s)
the clausula was the forerunner of the early motet
Substitute dominantsan alternative name for tritone subtitutions
Substitute fingeringsee 'alternative fingering'
Substitutiona chord (called a substitute chord) put in the place of a different chord often changing the chord root while retaining all the other voices, for example bII 7 for V7, and iii for I
in contrapuntal progression, the resolution or preparation of a dissonance by substituting, for the regular note of resolution or preparation, its higher or lower octave in some other part
the operation of musica ficta entails the taking of conjuncta, i.e. substitution at certain points and for contrapuntal reasons, of a tone for a semitone (or vice versa)
in piano studies and exercises, substituting different fingerings for those recommended in the score
Substitution des doigts(French f.) change of finger
Substitution, metricalsee 'metrical substition'
Substitution, rhetoricalthe manipulation of the caesura to create the effect of a series of different feet in a line of poetry
Substratum theorythe idea that an original language in a region alters or affects later languages introduced there
Subtonean effect on certain wind instruments that produces a very quiet sound. It is marked as 'echo tone', 'subtone', mezzo voce or sotto voce. To mark the end of a 'subtone' passage, 'normal' is written above the music
Subtonicthe seventh degree of the natural minor scale, the flattened seventh of a major scale, sottotonica (Italian f.), sous-tonique (French f.), Subtonika (German f.), subtónica (Spanish f.)
many theorists reserve the term 'subtonic' for the flattened or lowered seventh degree, i.e. a semitone (half-step) lower than the leading note or leading tone
Subtonica(Dutch) subtonic, sottotonica (Italian f.), sous-tonique (French f.), Subtonika (German f.), subtónica (Spanish f.)
Subtonika(German f., Danish, Swedish) subtonic, sottotonica (Italian f.), sous-tonique (French f.), subtónica (Spanish f.)
Subtoonika(Finnish) subtonic, sottotonica (Italian f.), sous-tonique (French f.), Subtonika (German f.), subtónica (Spanish f.)
Subtractive colourthe theory by which the creation of any colour can be made by subtracting varying proportions of one or more of the primary subtractive colours, cyan, magenta, or yellow, (CMY) from white light. It is the principle that governs the mixing of all colourants and is used in offset printing. We see colour because different objects absorb and reflect the visual spectrum differently. The primary subtractive colours act like filters that absorb their complementary colours of red, green, and blue which compose white light. An object that absorbs (subtracts) one complementary colour reflects the combination of the other two back. The amount of cyan used in printing will proportionally determine the amount of red seen for if all red light is subtracted from white light the remaining green and blue light reflected back to the eye will combine to form cyan. In other words an ink that subtracts red will appear as cyan. Likewise magenta absorbs green, reflecting blue and red, which combine to form magenta. Yellow absorbs blue, reflecting green and red, which combines to form yellow. An object that absorbs two complementary colours will reflect back unchanged the single remaining complementary, red or green or blue. When all three complementary colours are combined all primaries are absorbed resulting in black. And if no colours were absorbed they would reflect back as white light
Substratethe base material onto which an image will be printed. It can consist of wood, metal, rubber, or stone, depending on the technique employed. Substrate can sometimes be used synonymously with the term plate
sub voce(Latin, literally 'under the word') used to indicate the head-word in a dictionary, etc. under which information may be found
Subwoofera large, often floor-standing speaker dedicated to reproducing very low frequencies
Succedaneum (s.), Succedanae (pl.)(Latin) a makeshift, an often inferior substitute
Succentor(Latin) the sub-chanter, a deputy of the precentor
(Latin) a bass singer
Succès(French m.) success
Succès de ridicule(French m.) the success (of a work of art) that results from it having been assumed to be a joke
Succès de scandale(French m.) the success (of a work of art) due wholly to the scandal it has created
Succès de snobisme(French m.) the success (of a work of art) due to its appeal to intellectual snobbery
Succès d'estime(French m.) the success (of a work of art) which elicits the approval of discerning critics but gathers neither wdie popularity nor financial reward for its creator (the English phrase 'gained critical acclaim' is used often in such a case, for it is to be assumed that the work in question has been a commercial failure)
Succès fou(French m.) a success (of a work of art) that is marked by scenes of wild enthusiasm
Successeur(French m.) successor
successif (m.), successive (f.)(French) successive
Successive compositiona compositional technique in which the voices were written in an order with each new voice fitting into the whole so far constructed, a feature of the earliest forms of polyphony
successivement(French) successively
Successo(Italian m.) success
succinct (m.), succincte (f.)(French) brief, concise
succomber(French) to die
succomber à(French) to succumb to
Succotashan American dish made from green corn and lima beans
Succubus (s.), Succubi (pl.)see incubus
Succulenta plant whose leaves or stems are thick and fleshy
succulent (m.), succulente (f.)(French) juicy, palatable, fleshy (of a plant)
Succumbto surrender, to die, to die from
Succursale(French f.) a branch (of a business)
sucedió tres años atrás(Spanish) it happened three years ago
sucer(French) to suck
Sucesión(Spanish f.) succession
Suceso(Spanish m.) event, happening
Sucesos(Spanish woaknb.wz.sk) accident and crime reports
Sucesos de acualidad(Spanish woaknb.wz.sk) current affairs
Suceso sin importancia(Spanish m.) unimportant incident
Sucette(French f.) a lollipop, a dummy (for a baby)
Sucre(French m.) sugar
sucré(French) sweet, sweetened
Sucre d'orge(French m.) barley sugar
Sucre en poudre(French m.) caster sugar
Sucre glace(French m.) icing sugar
sucrer(French) to sugar, to sweeten
Sucreries(French f. pl.) sweets
Sucre roux(French m.) brown sugar
Sucrier(French m.) a sugar-bowl
sucrier (m.), sucrière (f.)(French) to sugar
Sud(French m.) south
sud(French) south, southern, southerly
Sud-africain (m.), Sub-africaine (f.)(French) a South-African
sud-africain (m.), sub-africaine (f.)(French) South-African
Sudamathe indigent boyhood friend and associate of Sri Krishna, whom the latter honours, in the Bhagavata
Sudarium(Latin) a face-cloth
Suddendone or occuring abruptly or unexpectedly, improvviso (Italian), soudain (French), plötzlich (German), subit (French), repentino (Spanish)
Suddenlyunexpectedly, abruptly, subito (Italian), improvvisamente (Italian), plötzlich (German), jäh (German - abrupt), subitement (French), brusquement (French), de repente (Spanish)
Sudden modulationmodulation to a distant key, with no preparatory or intermediate chord
Suddennesssubitaneltà (Italian), soudaineté (French), lo repentino (Spanish)
Sud-est(French m.) south-east
su devoción me resulta completamente ajena(Spanish) her sense of devotion is just beyond belief
Sud-ouest(French m.) south-west
Sudsersoap opera (colloquial)
Suède(French f.) Sweden
(French, literally 'Sweden') undressed kid-skin (originally a reference to gants de Suède, gloves from Sweden, which became associated with the material from which they were commonly made)
Suedettea fabric, made from cotton or rayon, that has the texture of suede
Suèdine(French f.) suedette
Suédois(French m.) the Swedish language
Suédois (m.), Suédoise (f.)(French) a Swede
suédois (m.), suédoise (f.)(French) Swedish
Suegra(Spanish f.) mother-in-law
Suegro(Spanish m.) father-in-law
Sueldo(Spanish m.) salary
Sueé(French f.) sweat
suer(French) to sweat, to ooze (walls)
suer à grosse gouttes(French) to sweat profusely
suer de peur(French) to sweat with fear, to be in a cold sweat
suer sur une dissertation(French) to sweat over an essay
Sueur(French f.) sweat
Sueur de son front(French f.) sweat of one's brow
Sueurs froides(French f.) cold sweat
suffire(French) to be enough
suffire à(French) to satisfy
suffisamment(French) sufficiently
suffisamment de(French) sufficient
Suffisance(French f.) conceit (vanity)
suffisant (m.), suffisante (f.)(French) sufficient, conceited (vain)
Suffixin linguistics, an affix that comes after the base of a word
Suffixe(French m.) suffix
Sufflöte(German f.) synonymous with sifflöte
suffocato(Italian) soffocato
Suffoquer(French) to choke, to suffocate
Suffrage(French m.) a vote, the right to vote
Sufidevotional Muslim music. Sufi brotherhoods (tarikas) are common in Morocco, and music is an integral part of their spiritual tradition, in contrast to most other forms of Islam, which do not use music. This music is an attempt at reaching a trance state which inspires mystical ecstasy. The brothers hold hands in a circle and chant or dance. Sufi music is usually without rhythm
sufrir un accidente(Spanish) to have an accident
Sugar papersee 'construction paper'
suggérer(French) to suggest
Suggeritore(Italian m.) a prompter
suggeritore(Italian) see rammentatore
Suggeritrice(Italian f.) a prompter
Suggestion(English, French f.) the proposal of a theory, a plan, etc., to give a hint, to insinuate a belief, etc. into the mind
suggestif (m.), suggestive (f.)(French) suggestive, hinting at
Suggestivfrage(German f.) leading question
sugli, sui (pl.)see su
Sugonghua Korean harp
SuguduChinese plucked lute
su habitación es muy alegre(Spanish) her room is nice and bright
suhteelliset laulunimet(Finnish) solmization
Sui(Chinese) xun in the Guangdong dialect
(Italian) see su
suicidaire(French) suicidal
Suicidé (m.), Suicidée (f.)(French) a suicide
Suie(French) soot
Sui generis(Latin, literally 'of his/her/its own kind') unique
sui juris(Latin) in law, at an age when one can is able to manage one's own affairs
Suintement(French m.) oozing
suinter(French) to ooze
Suisse(French f.) Switzerland
Suisse (m.), Suissesse (f.)(French) a Swiss man or woman
Suitcase ariaalthough aria borrowing was commonplace in opera history, the distinctive feature of the "suitcase aria" was that it was re-used by the same performer. An investigation of opera performances in late 17th-century Italy shows that borrowed arias were not transmitted by individual singers but were exchanged between singers. Certain other singers and impresarios maintained an aria repertory and served as brokers for other cast members
Suite(French f.) continuation, rest, sequel, series, suite (of rooms), consequence, order, a succession
a retinue, a train of followers
a set of furniture, etc. made to a common pattern
(English, German f.) in music, a set of related or unrelated instrumental pieces, movements or sections, usually short, played as a group, and usually in a specific order. In the 18th-century suites were also known as overtures or, in France, ouvertures
see 'baroque suite', 'form'
Suite à votre lettre du(French) further to your letter of the
Suite de dances(French f.) a set of dances, that originated in the early part of the 17th-century, and was firmly established by the Baroque era, when the 'suite' contained an optional prelude, followed by a selection of dances including allemande, courante, sarabande, intermezzi (consisting of two to four dances, containing a minuet, a gavotte, or other styles of dances) and a gigue
Suite de pièces(French f.) a series of lessons or pieces
Suites(French f.) the after-effects
suivant(French) according to
Suivant (m.), Suivante (f.)(French) used after ou, to mean 'the next person'
suivant (m.), suivante (f.)(French) following, next
suivez(French) continue, go on, attacca
(French) follow, colla parte, colla voce
suivi(French) steady, sustained, consistent
peu suivi (French: poorly-attended)
très suivi (French: well-attended)
suivre(French) to follow, to keep up, to keep up with
Sujet(French m.) subject, cause, subject (in grammar)
(French m.) in music, subject, melody, theme, phrase
sujet à, sujete à(French) liable to, subject to
Sujeto(Spanish m.) subject, melody, theme, phrase
Sukusmall West African fiddle
SukutiBantu-style drums played by the Luhya in Kenya
SulKorean twenty-five string zither used in court music
sulsee su
sul bordo(Italian) at the edge, on the rim
sul bordo della calaida(Italian) on the rim of the kettle
sul bordo della cassa(Italian) on the rim of the shell of the drum
sul cerchio(Italian) at the edge, on the rim
Sulcus (s.), Sulci (pl.)(anatomy) any of the narrow grooves in an organ or tissue especially those that mark the convolutions on the surface of the brain
sul fazzoletto(Italian) on the handkerchief
sulfurique(French) sulphuric (for example, sulphuric acid)
sul G(Italian) on the G string
sul ginocchio(Italian) on the knee
Sulibao(Philippines) a drum in which a drumhead is stretched over one side of a hollowed out drum shell. The head is tied to the body using a piece of rattan and is tightened. The player holds the instrument at an angle to the body
  • Sulibao from which this information has been taken
Sulim(Indonesia) flute from Sumatra
Suling(Javanese) hollow reed flute used in gamelan orchestras, each tuning, slendro and pelog, requiring its own suling
Suling degung(Indonesia) a suling used in the Sundanese small ensemble style gamelan degung
Suling tembang(Indonesia) a suling used in tembang, small ensembles that accompany primarily vocal music
sull'see su
sullasee su
sulla caldaia(Italian) on the kettle
[corrected by Mike Morrison]
sulla cassa(Italian) on the shell (of the drum)
[corrected by Mike Morrison]
sulla corda La(Italian) on the A string
sulla scena(Italian) on stage
sulla pella(Italian) on the (drum)head
sulla superfice del tamburello(Italian) on the flat of the tambourine
sulla tastiera(Italian) upon the keys
(Italian) or sul tasto, in string playing, bow near or above the fingerboard producing a colourless tone, flautando (Italian), nahe am Griffbrett (German), sur la touche (French)
sullesee su
sul legno(Italian) on wood
sull'orlo(Italian) at the edge, on the rim (of a drum)
sull'orlo della pella(Italian) on the rim of the (drum)head
sull'orlo del timpano(Italian) near the rim of a kettle-drum
sull'orlo vicino cerchio(Italian) near the edge, near the rim (of a drum)
sullo sfondo(Italian) in the background
sul naturale(Italian) normal bowing on a string instrument
sul più bello(Italian) at the crucial point
sul pont.abbreviated form of sul ponticello
sul ponticello(Italian) bow on or close to the bridge (which increases the high harmonics and produces a brittle tone), am Steg (German), près du chevalet (French)
sul primo abbordo(Italian) or di primo abbordo (Italian), at first, first of all, to begin with
Sultana Moslem sovereign
Sultanaa Moslem ruler's wife, mother, concubine or daughter
Sultanaa cither- or zither-viol, the 18th-century double-strung bowed guitar
Sultanatethe reign of a Moslem ruler, the country or region so ruled
sul tardi(Italian) late in the day
sul tasto(Italian) or sulla tastiera, bow near or above the fingerboard producing a colourless tone, flautando (Italian), nahe am Griffbrett (German), sur la touche (French)
Sultryhot and close (of weather), passionate or sensual (of a person)
sum.abbreviation of 'summer'
Sumac(French, from Arabic) or sumach, a shrub with reddish conical fruits used as a spice, the dried and ground leaves of this plant used in tanning and dyeing
su madre le dio ánimos(Spanish) his mother encouraged him
Sumarian music
sumerische Musik(German f.) Sumerian music, music of the Sumerians
Summa(Latin, 'highest' or 'all') a treatise, essay, or book that attempts to deal comprehensively with its topic, especially one that is meant to be the "final word" on a subject
Summa cum laude(Latin) with highest honour, with distinction
Summariseto make a summary of
Summationsee 'summational note', 'summational tone'
Summational noteor 'summation tone' or 'summation note', a resultant tone whose frequency is equal to the sum of the frequencies of the two generating tones
Summational tonesynonymous with 'summational note'
Summationston(German m.) summational note, summational tone
summen(German) to hum
summend(German) humming
Summer stock theatrea theatre that generally produces plays only in the summertime. The name combines the seasonal aspect with a tradition of putting on the same shows each year and reusing "stock" scenery and costumes. Some smaller theatres still continue this tradition, and a few summer stock theatres have become highly regarded theatre festivals. Equity status and pay for actors in these theatres varies greatly, sometimes resulting in sub-minimum wage pay for acting "interns." Often viewed as a starting point for professional actors, stock casts are typically young; just out of high school or still in college
Summonermedieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court
Summum(French m.) height
Summum bonum(Latin) the supreme Good
Sumpotonsee sompoton
sumptibus(Latin) at the expense
Sumptuary lawslaws that regulate the sort of clothing an individual may wear
Sunaglieri(Corsica) mule bells
Sunburst pleatsfine knife pleats that burst out from the waistband of a skirt, similar to that of a sun ray
Sund(German m.) a sound
Sunday composersa term applied to African composers, who drawing on the strong local Christian hymn traditions, write new versions particularly for church and school choirs. Some have combined European and African elements while others have drawn from popular music traditions such as highlife, tarabu, kwela, etc.
Sun Fin Chin(Chinese) accordion
Sungion-mu(Korean) dance music for celebrating a victory
Sung masssee 'mass'
Sung multiphonicssee 'multiphonics'
Sung-througha term used for a piece of music theatre without spoken dialogue, often, wrongly, including those works where the singing pauses for orchestral interludes
s'unir(French) to join, to unite
Sunnah(Arabic) the body of traditional sayings attributed to Muhammad and not contained in the Koran
Sunua welcome ceremonial music of the Malenke people from the border region between Guinea and Mali in West Africa. This music is performed during traditional festivals such as the Ramadan, Tabaseki, weddings and other social occasions
SUNYabbreviation of 'State University of New York'
suo(Italian) its own
suo loco(Italian) in its own, or usual place, at the pitch as written (a term sometimes used after an indication such as 8va)
Suomirockthe term for 'Finnish rock music'
Suomisaundisometimes called 'psy-fi', 'suomistyge', 'suomisoundi' or 'spugedelic trance', a style of freeform psychedelic trance, originating from Finland. Suomisaundi literally means in Finnish slang "Finnish sound"
Suonaa Chinese folk shawm, often popularly called laba (trumpet), it first appeared in the Wei and Jin period (), but did not become widely appreciated until the Zhengde period () of the Ming dynasty. With a strong, penetrating tone, the suona is best suited to ardent and lively styles, especially for the imitation of the singing of hundreds of birds. Experienced players can produce a soft tone (called the sound of the xiao) for a plaintive or sentimental effect. A smaller instrument known as the haidi (sea flute) is pitched a fourth higher
soprano suonamay be keyed; strident to the point of piercing
alto suonausually with added keys; vigorous and sonorous
tenor suonawith added keys
bass suonawith added keys; solemn and deep
Suonare(Italian) synonymous with sonare
suonare la musica(Italian) to play music
Suonare le campane(Italian) to ring the bells
Suonar sordamente(Italian) to play softly
Suonata(Italian f.) synonymous sonata
Suonata di chiesa(Italian f.) synonymous sonata da chiesa
Suonatina(Italian f.) synonymous with sonatina
Suonatore (m.), Suonatrice (f.)(Italian) player
Suoni armonichi(Italian m. pl.) harmonics, flageolet notes
Suoni armonici(Italian m. pl.) harmonics, flageolet notes
Suoni musicali(Italian m. pl.) musical sounds
Suono (s.), Suoni (pl.)(Italian m.) note, tone, sound, sounds, a song
Suono armonioso(Italian m.) harmonious sound
Suono delle campane(Italian m.) the sound(s) of bells
Suono sinusoidale(Italian m.) sine tone
Suono traduttore(Italian m.) sound transducer
Sup abbreviation of superius (Latin)
Supelka(Greece) small flute
su pensamiento está en las antípodas del mío(Spanish) his thinking is diametrically opposite to mine
Superin the theatre, also called 'supernumerary' or 'extra', a walk-on part, most often one in which no words are spoken
super(Latin) above, over
Superacutae claves(Latin) the five highest notes of the hexachordal system
Superacutae voces(Latin) the five highest notes of the hexachordal system
Superacuta loca(Latin) the five highest notes of the hexachordal system
superbasee superbo
superbamente(Italian) proudly
superbo(Italian) or altero (Italian), haughty, hochmütig (German), hautain (French)
superbo (m.), superba (f.)(Italian) proud, haughty, superb, proudly, loftily
Superbonea hybrid trombone, a cross between the slide trombone and the valve trombone, which has both valves and a slide
Superdominant(English, Swedish, Danish, Dutch) the sixth degree of the scale, the submediant
Superdominante(Spanish, German) see 'submediant'
superflu(French) superfluous
superfluo(Italian, Spanish) superfluous
Superfluoussynonymous with augmented
Superfluous fourththe note whose frequency ratio to the tonic is ( cents)
Superfluous intervalsynonymous with augmented interval
supérieur (m.), supérieure (f.)(French) superior, upper, greater, higher
Superimpositionin music, the placement of an melody over another melody, or' in some case, the simultaneous performance of two or more unrelated pieces
Superíndice dos(Spanish) or cuadrado, index for a square (&#;)
Superíndice tres(Spanish) or cúbico, index for a cube (&#;)
Superíndice uno(Spanish) unitary index (&#;)
superior(Portuguese) higher, upper, greater
superiore(Italian) superior, higher, upper, greater
Superior temporal gyrusfold of the cerebral cortex at the upper part of the temporal lobe in the brain. This area is active during auditory processing
Superior temporal lobeupper portion of the temporal lobe, including the superior temporal gyrus
Superiusalso called discantus or cantus, the highest voice or melody in a musical composition of two or more parts
common from the 15th-century, the superius was orginally only used as an accompaniment to the main melody, the tenor
Supernaturalpertains to entities, events or powers regarded as beyond nature, in that they cannot be explained from the laws of the natural world. Religious miracles are typical of such "supernatural" manifestations, as are spells and curses, divination, the notion that there is an afterlife for the dead, and innumerable others. Supernatural themes are often associated with magical and occult ideas
Supernumeryin the theatre, also called 'super' or 'extra', a walk-on part, most often one in which no words are spoken
Superoctavean organ stop tuned two octaves or a fifteenth higher in pitch than the diapasons
a coupler that causes a key an octave higher than those to be struck to be pulled down
the octave above a particular note
Superparticular intervalsintervals where the pitch ratio is of the form ((n+1)/n) where n is an integer; for example, 9/8, 11/10, 3/2, etc.
the only superparticular intervals in 3-limit Pythagorean tuning are 2/1, 3/2, 4/3, and 9/8
Superposición de terceras(Spanish f.) tertian harmony
Superposition de tierces(French f.) tertian harmony
Superposition d'intervalles autre que l'harmonie en tierces(French) non-tertian harmony
Superscripta small letter, number or symbol placed above a standard sized letter of number (for example, S2, where 2 is the superscript)
supersonica speed that is above that of the speed of sound in that particular medium
supersonic(Italian) supersonic
supersónico(Spanish) supersonic
supersonique(French) supersonic
Superstratum theorythe idea that a new language introduced into a region alters or affects the language spoken there previously
Supertonicsus-tonique (French), sopratonica (Italian), Supertonika (German), supertónica (Spanish), the second degree of a major or minor scale, the note above the tonic
Supertonica(Dutch) supertonic
Supertónica(Spanish) supertonic
Supertonic chordthe chord which uses as its root the supertonic note of a key, that is, the II chord
Supertonic seventh chorda seventh chord built on the second degree of a scale
the first inversion supertonic seventh chord is usually desribed as an added sixth chord, first used by Debussy and other early 20th-century composers, where a sixth is added to the major tonic triad, usually treated as a consonance at the end of a phrase, and later taken up by jazz pianists
Supertonic seventh chord with raised root and thirda diminished seventh chord built on the raised second degree of a major scale. This chord usually resolves to the tonic chord in first inversion
Supertonic triadtriad built on the second degree of the scale
Supertonika(German, Danish, Swedish) supertonic
Supertonique(French) supertonic, the second degree of the scale
Supinea supine verb form is one that is not fully conjugated
suplementario(Spanish) supplementary
Suplemento(Spanish m.) supplement
supo aplacar los ánimos(Spanish m.) she was able to calm people down
Supplément(French m.) supplement
supplémentaire(French) supplementary
supplementare(Italian) supplementary
Supplementary motor areaan area in the upper section of the frontal lobe, just forward of the motor cortex, thought to be involved in the regulation of complex, sequential movements. It may be important in the initiation of speech
Supplementary scorea score containing parts that cannot be written into the body of a larger score, so that the two would, if nessary, be read together
Supplemento(Italian m.) supplement
Suppletive forman inflectional form in which a common word has its current inflection come from a completely different word that later grew to be associated with it. For instance, the preterite form of go is the suppletive form went
suppliant(French) supplicating
supplicando(Italian) in a supplicating, pleading or entreating style
supplichevole(Italian) supplicating, in a supplicatory manner
supplichevolmente(Italian) supplicatingly, in a supplicatory manner
supplier de(French) to beg, to beseech
Supporti a lettura ottica(Italian m. pl.) compact disc, CD
Supporting castactors who are not playing major parts
Supporting documenta document supplied in support of a principal document providing documentary evidence (for entries in the form: birth certificate to confirm date of birth, etc.), to lend support (for a job, position, etc.: letter of commendation, references, etc.), to confirm eligibility, and so on. A work of art, piece of furniture, etc. might be offered for auction together with confirmation of provenance (the history of the ownership of an object, especially when documented or authenticated)
Supporting lega term used by dancers and teachers for the leg which supports the body so that the working leg is free to execute a given movement
Suppressed fundamentalsee 'missing fundamental'
Suppression du bruit(French f.) noise reduction, noise suppression
Suppressio veri(Latin) the misrepresentation or suppression of the truth
supprimez(French) put stop out of action, suppress
supra(Latin) above, on an earlier page
(Italian) above
Suppression(French) removal, cancellation, deletion
supprimer(French) to get rid of, to remove, to cancel, to delete
supra(Latin) above, previously mentioned (for example, when referencing an earlier passage in a book, etc.)
Supratitlesee 'English capitions'
Supremein cooking, boneless breast of chicken
Supremo(Spanish) an overlord, the supreme commander, the supreme authority in matters of taste, etc.
Supriñu(Spain, France) an ancient Basque double-reed horn made from hazelnut tree bark rolled into a cone that is bent at one end to form the mouthpiece and is then rolled to form a long tube
sur(French, Italian) on, over, upon
Surah(Arabic) a chapter of the Koran
suraigu (m.), suraiguë (f.)(French) very shrill
Sur-augmenté(French) double augmented
Surbaharessentially a bass sitar, tuned anywhere from four steps to an octave lower than a regular sitar, the surbahar has an advantage over the sitar in that it has a longer sustain and an ability to meend (glissando) up to an octave in a single fret. It is possible therefore to play complex melodies without using more than a single fret. This instrument is very well suited to long slow alaps but the instrument's main weakness is that its long sustain causes a fast jhala to become indistinct and muddy. It is for this reason that some artists prefer to play the alap with a surbahar but shift to the sitar for gat and jhala
sur bois(French) on wood
sur ce, j'ai fait (French) whereupon I did
sur ces entrefaites(French) at that moment
sur ces mots(French) with this, so saying
sur ce ton(French) like that, in that way
Surcoatlong flowing garment worn over armour
sur commande(French) by order
Surdam(Indonesia) flute from Sumatra
Surdasblind Hindi poet of northern India who lived in the 16th century AD; his poetical work, Sursagar, narrating the story of Krishna, is immensely popular with Hindi-speaking Hindus
Surdelina(Italian f.) a kind of bagpipe
Surdelinesee surdelina
Surdité(French f.) deafness
SurdoBrazilian bass drum used to mark the beat of samba music, which is like a very large and very deep tom-tom which is often hung on a rope around the neck, so it can be used in a march or on parade The head is flat and can be reached with both hands, although it is usually struck with a single large headed mallet held in one hand while the other hand is employed to vary the sound by sometimes pressing on the head to create a slightly higher pitch 'closed' or muffled sound
like many drums used in latin-america the surdo is often used in sets of three:
surdo de primeirafirst surdothe largest surdo (bass drum), the one that gives the crucial marcação, the second, stronger beat, to the samba. The surdo de primeira is generally placed next to the principal singers to help them keep time. It has a higher pitch, a stronger tone than the surdos de resposta (the responding bass drums, second and third surdos). A large bateria has from 8 to 10 big surdos
surdo de segundasecond surdothe response to the surdo de primeira, the second surdo sustains the samba rhythm while the surdo de primeira is at rest [in equal note values] by providing a counter-rhythm
surdo de terceirathird surdoprovides beats between the other two, usually a little before the surdo de segunda, and is used to 'spice up' the rigid structure of the other two drum lines
Surdusee surdo
Surdulinasmall bagpipe from southern Italy
su reacción nos dejó anonadados(Spanish) her reaction left us speechless
su relación no tiene futuro(Spanish) their relationship has no future
su relato aguijoneó mi curiosidad(Spanish) my curiosity was spurred on by his story
Sûreté(French) the criminal investigation department of a French police force
Sûreté Générale(French) the French equivalent of Scotland Yard
Sur fond réservé(French) in art, en plein (enamel work), where the ground (usually gold or silver) is carved in intaglio, the hollows being filled with translucent enamel through which the modelling can still be seen
Surf musica California-born style, both instrumental and vocal, popular during the s and s and whose most noted exponents were The Beach Boys
Surf rocka style of music that originated in the USA that mixes elements of surf music and rock music. While in the s surf music and rock and roll were distinct styles, associated with competing dance styles and representing distinct and competing youth cultures, the development of rock music since then has built upon both styles. Many authorities now retrospectively classify all surf bands as rock bands, and surf music therefore as a subgenre of rock music
  • Surf rock from which this extract has been taken
sur invitation(French) by invititation
sur la caisse(French) on the shell (of the drum)
sur la peau(French) on the (drum)head
sur la porte(French) in the door
sur la quatrième corde(French) on the fourth string
sur la recommendation de (French) upon 's recommendation
sur la scène(French) on the stage
sur la seconde corde(French) on the second string
sur la touche(French) (bow) on the fingerboard, sul tasto (Italian), sulla tastiera (Italian), flautando (Italian), nahe am Griffbrett (German)
sur le bord(French) at the edge, on the rim (of a drum)
sur le bord de la peau(French) on the rim of the drum head
sur le bord du caisse(French) on the rim of the shell (of the drum)
sur le bord du chaudron(French) on the rim of the kettle
sur le bout de(French) on the tip of
sur le cercle(French) on the rim
sur le centre de la cymbale(French) on the dome of the cymbal, on the top of the cymbal
sur-le-champ(French) immediately, right away
sur le chaudron(French) on the kettle
sur le chevalet(French) (bow) near the bridge
sur le compte de(French) about
sur le contretemps(French) off beat
sur le cou-de-pied(French, literally 'on the "neck" of the foot') in dance, the working foot (actually the heel of that foot) is placed on the part of the leg between the base of the calf and the beginning of the ankle
sur le coup(French) at the time, at first, outright
sur le coup de heures(French) around o'clock
sur le départ(French) about to leave
sur le fait(French) in the act, red-handed
sur le fond(French) in the background
sur le genou(French) on the knee
sur le mode majeur(French) in the major key
sur le mode mineur(French) in the minor key
sur le moment(French) at the time, at first
sur le mouchoir(French) on the handkerchief
sur le plateau du tambour de Basque(French) on the flat of the tambourine
sur les pointes(French) in ballet, the raising of the body on the tips of the toes, also used in the singular, sur la pointe. This technique was first introduced in the late s or early s at the time of Taglioni. There are three ways of reaching the points, by piqué, relevé or sauté
sur le tapis(French, literally 'on the carpet') under discussion, the subject of conversation
sur le tard(French) late in life
sur le temps(French) top of the beat
sur le vif(French) in art, (painted, etc.) from life
sur le voile(French) on the cloth
sur l'heure(French) immediately, right away
Surmasee kohl
Surmandalotherwise known as swarmandal or svaramandala, the surmanal is basically a small harp used for the drone to accompany singers. It is considered a minor instrument although, as a class, the harps in India are very ancient
sur moi(French) on me, in my possession
Surnaia double reed wind instrument with two double blades that are bound together and fixed into the top of the instrument. The sound generated by vibration, caused by blowing through the gaps between the two blades, gives it a buzzing sound.
Surnaythe Uzbecki seven-holed wind instrument known in Persia as the zurna and in China as the sona
Surpetialso called swar pethi, swar peti, swarpeti, surpeti, sruti box or shruti box, the surpeti is an Indian drone instrument. The manual surpeti is a small hand-pumped free reed organ, similar to the harmonium, but as it has no keys, it cannot can play a melody
sur place(French) on the spot
Surpliceitem of processional vestments: loose fitting white garment not quite reaching to the feet
Surprise cadencesynonymous with 'interrupted cadence'
Surprise endinganother term for an O. Henry ending
Surrealism(from the French surréalisme, literally 'super-realism') the term originated in the studios of Paris and appeared in manifestos in the early s. Surrealism's founders were André Breton, Louis Aragon, Salvador Dali, Max Ernst, Marcel Duchamp, Yves Tanguy, Man Ray. In Britain, surrealism was promoted by Roland Penrose and Herbert Read and later by George Melly (jazz singer and writer), Spike Milligan (script-writer) and John Lennon (poet and writer of pop songs). The most significant figure, however, David Gascoyne, sat at the feet of Ernst and Aragon and, before he was 20, published the pioneering treatise A Short Study of Surrealism (). In the same year, he translated Dali's Conquest of the Irrational and Breton's What Is Surrealism?
Surréalisme(French m.) surrealism
Surshreein Hindustani classical music, an honourable title given to an eminent female musician
Sursum corda(Latin, literally 'lift up your hearts') the exhortation made by the celebrant immediately before the Preface of the Mass, although applied to any exhoration
Surtitlesee 'English capitions'
surtout(French) above all, especially
Sûrufsubsidiary procedures employed by singers in milhûn song to produce an even greater effect on the audience and above all to correct the rhythm. Al-Maghrawi (16thth centuries) created from dân, a word that has no meaning, verses which were used as the basis for verse-writing by Moroccan folk poets, thus Dân dâni yâ dâni dân dân yâ dân
sur una corda(Italian) upon one string
sur une corde(French) upon one string
sur une grande échelle(French) on a grand scale
sur une même portée(French) on the same staff
Surveillance(French) watching over or spying (on a suspect)
survivre à(French) to survive
survoler(French) to skim through (a book)
sus ancias de aprendar(Spanish) her eagerness to learn
Susanne un jourthe poem, Susanne un jour, by Guillaume Guéroult (died c) provided the text for at least 30 chansons by more than 20 different composers in addition to the most famous setting by Orlando di Lasso. Indeed, there are more settings of Susanne un jour preserved in manuscripts and publications than of any other 16th-century secular text in any language
SusapPapuan Jew's harp
susabbreviated form of 'suspended', used in naming certain chords or triads, as, for example, Fsus4 which is F-Bb-C, where the third A has been raised to a fourth Bb
Sus chordin jazz, generally a reference to a dominant 7th chord in which the 4th does not act like an avoid note
Sus-dominante(French) see 'submediant'
s'user(French) to wear, to wear out
Sus flat 9or sus b9, a sus chord derived from either the third or Phrygian mode of the major scale or the second mode of the melodic minor scale
Sushia Japanese dish made up of rice, veg and seafood (raw or cooked) rolled in nori and sliced, usually served with a dipping sauce
su sola presencia amenizó la velada(Spanish) just his being there livened up the evening
Suspended cadencesynonymous with 'interrupted cadence'
Suspended chordsa chord in which the third is replaced or accompanied by either a fourth or a major second, although the fourth is far more common
Suspended cymbala cymbal (circular brass plate measuring from 16" to 22" in diameter) that is suspended on a stand and is struck with drum sticks, brushes, or, more often, mallets, typically used in a symphony orchestra, symphonic band, concert band, brass band, and other large instrumental ensembles, to keep a rhythmic pulse in a composition or provide percussive accents
Suspended fourth chords
Suspended ninththe suspended ninth is formed by the delaying of the root of a chord (usually an octave above the bass) by prolonging from a previous chord the note diatonically above it, i.e. the ninth which then resolves to the octave
Suspended Sound LineMax Neuhaus created Suspended Sound Line, a permanent sound installation, in on the footbridge at Lorrianstrasse 1, Berne, Switzerland. Neuhas' concept is that the sounds become an inseparable part of our sonic environment. In his words, the sound "is a part of the structure as if the sound was another element of construction, like steel and concrete "
Suspended timevery long static events, with nothing much else happening
Suspended tonalityan effect produced by a series of nonfunctional chords or by rapid modulations where a sense of key is momentarily lost
Suspenderain the theatre or films, a suspense film
an accessory used to hold up a garment (for example, trousers, socks, stockings)
suspender un examen(Spanish) to fail an exam
suspendu (m.), suspendue (f.)(French) suspended
Suspension(English, French f., German f.) ritardo (Italian), Vorhalt (German), suspension (French), a dissonance caused by a note that is held over, that is approached by itself, and resolved to the chord note by a tone or semitone after the chord is played. When two or three notes are thus suspended, a double or triple suspension is formed
there are three stages in the treatment of a suspension:
preparationthe appearance or sounding of the note in the first of the two chords
suspension or percussionthe retaining of that note as a dissonance in the second chord
resolutionits progression by step to the note of the second chord whose appearance has been delayed
Sus pentatonic scalethe same as the minor pentatonic scale with the second note diminished by half a note, the sus pentatonic scale is the second mode of the major pentatonic scale. The name 'sus pentatonic' is not in common use, but the name fits the scale well, because the scale generates a sus7 chord and is therefore used over these chords
suspirar(Spanish) to sigh
suspirar por(Spanish) to long for (figurative)
Suspirium(Latin) a crochet (quarter note) rest
Suspiro(Spanish m.) a sigh, a pause for breath, soupir (French)
süß(German) sweet, sweetly
Suße(German f.) sweetness
Sussex Mummers Carolthis traditional carol is sung as an ending to the folk play in Horsham, Sussex, England
sussurando(Italian) whispering, murmuring
sussurante(Italian) whispering, murmuring
sussurrare(Italian) to whisper, to murmured
Sustainto hold a note for its full time value, to play in a sostenuto or legato manner
as a verbal-noun, used to mean the length of time a string vibrates after being plucked
Sustained(note) held for its full time value, sostenuto (Italian), gehalten (German), soutenu (French)
Sustaining pedalon a piano, a mechanism that holds up the felt dampers, allowing the strings to vibrate freely even after the keys are released, usually operated by the rightmost pedal which for this reason is also known as the 'damper' pedal
Sustancia(Spanish f.) substance
Sustancia adictiva(Spanish f.) addictive substance
(Portuguese) a sign to show that a note should be raised one semitone in pitch
sustentação (do som)(Portuguese) sustain (the sound)
su stoffa(French) on the cloth
Sus-tonique(French) supertonic
su suegro le agrió el carácter(Spanish) her father-in-law turned her into an embittered person
susurrer(French) to whisper
Susurrus(Latin) a low whispering, rustling or muttering
Sutra(Sanskrit) a short mnemonic rule, particularly associated with Buddhist sacred texts
Suturean element in psychoanalytic theory, which explains the ability of film music to create subjectivity in spectators
suuri Intervalli(Finnish) major interval
suyo afectísimo(Spanish) yours sincerely
Suzeraine(French) a woman in authority over others or over an estate, etc.
SuzuJapanese bells
Suzuki methoda method of teaching music to children founded by Shin'ichi Suzuki (), a Japanese educationalist and violin teacher, which originally developed for the teaching of the violin, is now applied to the teaching of other instruments
SVreferring to the catalogue prepared by Manfred H. Stattkus of music by Claudio Monteverdi ()
svabbreviation of sub verbo (Latin: under the word - used for a reference to a dictionary, encylopedia, etc.)
s.v.abbreviated form of sotto voce (Italian: under the breath, in lowered tones, softly, as an aside, in an undertone)
[entry by Steven Otto]
svanendo(Italian) vanishing, en s'estompant
svanirando(Italian) vanishing, fainter and fainter
Svar(Swedish) in a fugue, the second answering theme
Svaramandalasee surmandal
Svar lippisee swar lippi
svegliando(Italian, literally 'wakening') brisk, alert, lively, sprightly, erweckend (German), en réveillant (French)
svegliato(Italian) awakened, brisk, alert, lively, sprightly, animated
Svejtrita Scandinavian step-lift pivot dance
svelte(French) smart, quick, freely, lightly, nimble, speedy, slender, willowy, elegant
svelto(Italian) smart, quick, freely, lightly, nimble, speedy, slender, willowy, elegant
Sviluppo(Italian m.) the development section of a movement in sonata form
Svirala(Croatia) a six-hole shepherd's flute, from Dalmatia
Svirela double longitudinal whistle flute with two pipes made of willow, maple or bird cherry. The mouthpieces of the pipes are beak-shaped. 3 finger-holes are cut or burnt out of each pipe set close to their lower ends, two of the holes are in the front and one is on the back, thus forming a pair of three hole pipes. The shorter pipes is normally mm long, the longer is mm. When playing, the "beaks" are both placed in the mouth with the pipes held at about 45 degrees to the vertical, and each drawn apart from the other to form an acute angle. The player holds one pipe in each hand. The first record of the svirel in Russian literature dates back to the 12th century
Svirets(Old Russian) anyone who played a wind instrument
SvirkaBulgarian's shepherd's flute
Svolgimento(Italian m.) development
SVPabbreviation of s'il vous plaît (French: please)
SWfor Searle/Winklhofer, the catalogue prepared by Humphrey Searle (), updated by Sharon Winklhofer, of music by Franz Liszt ()
Sw.abbreviation of 'Swell Organ'
Swadeshibelonging to or made in one's country
Swagea tool used in bending or shaping cold metal, a stamp or die for marking or shaping metal with a hammer
Swagingmetal-forming technique in which the dimensions of an item are altered using a die or dies
Swahili rumbain Kenya, Swahili rumba remains one of the popular urban sounds. Since the early s, the Swahili bands have experimented with various stylistic innovations but even today, their music remains closely tied to their rumba origins
Swami(Hindi) a Hindu religious teacher
Swamp bluesa form of blues music that is highly evolved and specialized. It arose from the Louisiana blues and is known for its laidback rhythms which dominate a music that is simultaneously funky and often lighthearted - for a blues sub-genre. Influences from Cajun music or black Creole zydeco music can also be heard in the sound, which has long been based out of Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Swamp Popa style of music created by Cajun and Creole musicians in the late s. This hybrid of pop, rock, and rhythm & blues is virtually identical to the pop, rock, and R&B of this area that was popular in other parts of the country. Accordions are rare in swamp pop, which favors typical R&B instrumentation, and French lyrics are rare, as well. Instead, swamp pop's regional identity comes from a soulful, emotional vocal style that has strong connections with zydeco and Cajun music
Swanee whistleslide whistle, piston whistle, zufolo a pistone (Italian m.), flauto a culisse (Italian m.), flauto a tiro (Italian m.), Lotusflöte (German f.), Stempelflöte (German f.), flûte lotine (French f.), flûte à coulisse (French f.)
see 'slide whistle'
Swarain Indian music, a musical note, a tonal register. The notes, or swaras, of Indian music are Shadjamam, Rishabham, Gandharam, Madhyamam, Panchamam, Dhaivatam and Nishadam. Collectively these notes are known as the sargam, the Indian solfege. In singing, these become Sa, Ri (Carnatic) or Re (Hindustani), Ga, Ma, Pa, Da (Carnatic) or Dha (Hindustani), and Ni. (Sargam stands for "Sa-R(i,e)-Ga-M(a)"). Only these syllables are sung, and further designations are never vocalized. When writing these become, S, R, G, M, P, D, N. A dot above a letter indicates that the note is sung one octave higher, a dot below indicates a note one octave lower. In certain forms of Indian classical music and quwalli, when a rapid, 16th note sequence of the same note is to be sung, sometimes different sylables are used in a certain sequence to make the whole easier to pronounce. For example instead of "sa-sa-sa-sa-sa-sa-sa-sa" said very quickly, it might be "sa-da-da-li-sa-da-da-li" which lends itself more to a quick and light tongue movement
  • Swara from which this extract has been taken
Swaraj(Sanskrit) (the agitation in favour of) self-rule, self-government (for India)
Swarajnana(Sanskrit) the knowledge of music
Swaré bèlè(Martinique) dance evening
Swargarohan Parvathe name of the last of the eighteen sections of the epic Mahabharata which describes how, when Yudhisthira, the eldest of the five Pandava brothers, retired to the Himalayas, towards the close of his life, and lost his wife and four brothers one after another, Indra appeared in his chariot to take him in the flesh to his (Indra's) Swarga, i.e., his heaven where mortals after death enjoy the results of their good deeds on earth
Swar lippi(India) a form of music notation known to have existed during the ages of the Vedas (from c BC). The Vedic hymns were typically sung in three notes: the central note was referred to as the swarita. This was the default state and needed no notational element. The upper note was called the udatta. This was denoted with a small vertical line over the syllable. The lower note was called the anudatta and was denoted with a horizontal line underneath the syllable. There are two modern systems that are derived from swar lippi, namely Paluskar notation, introduced at the turn of the 20th-century, and, a little later, Bhatkhande notation, which is the major non-Western based system in use in India today
Swarmandalsee surmandal
Swastika(Sanskrit) an ancient symbol of good fortune more recently associated with the German National Socialist (Nazi) Party
Swaythe term has a specific meaning in the technique of ballroom dancing, namely, describing a body position in which its upper part gracefully deflects from the vertical
Sweatin cooking, to cook in fat under a lid without colouring the foods
Swed.abbreviation of 'Swedish'
Swedish hip hop
Sweep-pickinga technique used on the guitar in which a "sweeping" motion of the pick is combined with a matching fret hand technique in order to produce a specific series of notes which are fast and fluid in sound. Despite being commonly known as sweep "picking" both hands perform an integral motion to achieve the desired effect
Sweep The Floorone of the two-couple figures danced in a circle of four people traditionally associated with square dancing
Sweep under the carpetconceal (a problem or difficulty)
Sweet, Sweetlydolce (Italian), soave (Italian), süss (German), doux (French m.), douce (French f.), doucement (French)
Sweeteninga term used in the 18th century for the flattement technique, a finger vibrato
The first absolutely clear description of the flattement technique appears in the anonymously edited recorder method The Complete Flute Master, which was printed for the first time in and reprinted up to The following advice for ornaments is added probably in "An open shake or sweetning is by shaking your finger over the half hole immediately below ye note to be sweetned ending with it off."
Sweet potatosee 'ocarina'
Swei leismall Burmese bells
Swella device that controls the volume of an organ through the use of a foot-pedal operated shutter
term that used to mean crescendo, but is now synonymous with messa di voce
see 'Swell division'
Swell divisionor 'Swell', a grouping of organ pipes located in a chamber or an enclosure equipped with Swell Shades, or movable louvers covering tone openings, which enable the organist to make the tone 'swell' or get louder, when desired. It is played from the top manual keyboard of a 2- or 3- manual console. The Swell contains stops to accompany the choir, and louder voices that benefit from the expression afforded by the Swell Shades, usually including a chorus of reeds
Swell pedalalso called 'swell shoe', a pedal on an organ console that controls the opening and closing of the swell shades
Swell shadesslats which look like Venetian blinds that can be opened and closed through a foot pedal called the swell shoe. This allows volume control because organ pipes behind the blinds will get louder as the shades are opened. The shades are normally in front of the division called the swell. They can also be placed in front of the solo and choir divisions if the organ has these divisions; a similar device called the 'Venetian swell' was incorporated into later harpsichords
Swell shoesee 'swell pedal'
SWFabbreviation of Südwestfunk (German)
Swift, Swiftlyveloce (Italian), volante (Italian), eilig (German), rapidement (French)
Swing (contradance)(English, German m.) a basic figure in contradance which is a standard ballroom swing. The couple takes standard ballroom position, with the lady's left hand on the gent's shoulder, the gent's right hand on the lady's waist, and their free hands clasped together in the air. (Experienced dancers often experiment with other ways to place their hands.) One can either walk or use a buzz-step; one partner may walk while the other uses the buzz-step. For the buzz-step your right foot remains on the ground, with your partner's right foot to the right of it. Your left foot pushes against the ground repeatedly, moving you in a circle clockwise. Weight is very important in this figure. Usually ends facing across the set, sometimes down the set, rarely up the set, but always with the gent on the left and the lady on the right. It is generally recommended that newcomers get an experienced dancer to teach them this figure before the dance begins
  • Swing from which this extract has been taken
Swing (music)(English, German m.) American style of jazz music, originating in the s, characterized by 'big band' instrumentation, a greater emphasis on solo passages, certain types of harmony (use of added 6ths rather than 7ths in major and minor chords, of un-embellished diminished chords, frequent use of the augmented 5th and little use of the augmented 11th, etc.) and a 4/4 tempo with an almost even emphasis on each beat of the bar
or shuffle rhythm, a rhythmic style, unique to jazz, in which the first of a pair of written quavers (eighth notes) is played longer than the second, even twice as long, while the second tends to receive a slight accent, though the distribution of accents is irregular and syncopated. The degree of this effect depends on the overall tempo, and is modified by the requirements of expression and phrasing
Swing at the Wallone of the two-couple figures danced in a circle of four people traditionally associated with square dancing
Swing dancea group of related street dances. The three main dance forms of swing are 'Lindy Hop', 'West Coast Swing', and 'East Coast Swing'. However, there are many other dances of this kind, such as 'Jive' and 'Balboa'
Swing erasee 'Big Band era'
Swing Figuresone of the two-couple figures danced in a circle of four people traditionally associated with square dancing
one of the big circle figures danced by all couples in one large circle facing the centre which are traditionally associated with square dancing
Swing Old Adam, Swing Old Eve (Helvetia)one of the big circle figures danced by all couples in one large circle facing the centre which are traditionally associated with square dancing
Swingoutalso called 'Lindy Turn' or 'Whip', the defining dance move of 'Lindy Hop' and 'West Coast Swing'. Its variants are also used in 'Jive', 'East Coast Swing' and 'Modern Jive'
  • Swingout from which this extract has been taken
Swing polkasee slängpolska
Swing songssee bambera
Swing the one Behindone of the two-couple figures danced in a circle of four people traditionally associated with square dancing
one of the big circle figures danced by all couples in one large circle facing the centre which are traditionally associated with square dancing
Swing timein dance, swing or shuffle time or rhythm is music whose metre is that of common time played with a swing. It may be written as simple time and played with a swing, or as compound time and played as written
Swing Your Corner Ladyone of the two-couple figures danced in a circle of four people traditionally associated with square dancing
Swisen(Arabic) a high-pitched North African oud
Swiss bell ringersa common designation in the 19th- and early 20th-centuries for players of English handbells, especially in the United States. How this term originated is obscure; perhaps it derived from the Swiss custom of performing with cowbells
Swiss flutean organ stop, with a pleasant tone somewhat like that of the Gamba
Swiss hip hop
Swiss organsee schwyzerörgeli

Peter Maxwell Davies at the Royal Academy of Music. Photograph: Graham Turner

In De Divisione Naturae, written in the 9th century, Erigena, more popularly known as John the Scot, wrote: "musica innata est quaedam communis secundam seipsam delectation". That is, "music, by its very nature, is a delight to everyone". I shall take his dictum as my central proposition, remembering that "diversi diversis delectantur"; "different people enjoy different things". And that, according to Vitruvius, "ars sine scientia nihil potest"; "art is powerless without knowledge".

In a recently published essay, Susan Sontag wrote: "Take care to be born at a time when it was likely that you would be definitely exalted and influenced by Dostoyevsky and Tolstoy, and Turgenev, and Chekov." I understand her enthusiasm for those four Russian writers, but the choice of examples for influence could be almost infinitely varied: on many lists would appear the names of Homer, Dante, Shakespeare, Goethe, for instance, as well as far less well-known authors.

What all these authors have in common is that they are serious, their work concerned with the most fundamental aspects of our humanity, our relationships with each other, and with our environment. All require time and patience to get to know. To return briefly to Sontag, she adds something I think is most significant: "be serious, which doesn't preclude being funny."

An educated person could construct a list of authors who have influenced his whole life and outlook, and will be able to refer to characters and situations, and even to quote directly - it is extraordinary how, in Britain, phrases and characters from Shakespeare and Dickens have made their way into the collective imagination and into everyday conversation; although there are now attempts by educators to undermine this, and dumb down a young person's contact with literature, as if this were something from which the young must be shielded.

Let us turn to music.

How often do we meet people who are otherwise cultured and educated, who have no awareness whatever of even the very existence of serious music? The epitome of this ignorance is particularly cruelly exposed on the radio programme Desert Island Discs, where you listen to the musical choices of someone whose work you admire enormously, who can discourse on science, theatre, literature and most things cultural outwith his speciality, but who is happy to display absolute ignorance of our musical culture.

Of course, one has sympathy with the Desert Islander's choice of a musically insignificant gobbet that happened to be playing when marriage was proposed and accepted, and Mahler and Shostakovich have demonstrated how such a musical morsel can be highlighted to make private significances become universal in the course of an extended symphonic argument.

This is a time when one cannot only be "definitely exalted and influenced" by Dostoyevsky, etc; but we have an equal chance, theoretically, to be influenced by Tchaikovsky, Borodin, or whomsoever. However, it would appear that young people are being ever more actively dissuaded from having contact with these masters than with the literary giants.

Before I attempt to elucidate what I think of as some of the unique qualities of serious western classical music, I would like to mention certain attitudes within the professions of music and music education that have disturbed me most.

The first and most common abuse hurled at the likes of me is that an education towards an understanding of, and working with, serious western classical music is "elitist". Michael Billington, discussing this year's Edinburgh Festival in the Guardian, wrote: "there is a strange reversal of values, particularly in the media. A concert or opera attended by 1, people or more is seen as 'elitist'; a small-scale event attracting a dedicated handful is regarded as 'popular'" - ie, inverted snobbery at its most pungently destructive.

"Classical" music these days, as Colin Bradbury has pointed out, does not mean music from the classical era of Haydn and Mozart, as opposed to Baroque or Romantic music; but everything from plainchant to Palestrina to Purcell to Puccini to Prokofiev to Penderecki, as opposed to other genres from folk to pop to the latest "popular" music fashion, as elucidated in page after page, with additional specialist "music" supplements, in the most respected national newspapers; while "classical" music receives ever less coverage, relegated, often heavily edited and cut, to obscure nooks and crannies.

I have great respect for Marc Jaffrey, of the Music Manifesto, and have had what I hope has been constructive dialogue with him: he is, however, working for an utterly philistine government, whose prime minister recently read a platitudinous speech about the health of the arts in Britain, when his own horizons are rock and pop. I do not wish to be unfair, but the only minister I ever saw at a "cultural" event was Roy Hattersley at an Ibsen play - apart from the last night of the Proms, and a royal concert I arranged to mark the 60th anniversary of the end of the second world war, which they had to attend.

Perhaps one should turn Howard Goodall's complaint around: "how many hip-hop commentators, teachers and pedagogues have diverted their analytical skills to classical music?"

When I was working at the Royal College of Music a few years ago, as part of an "outreach" programme, I met music teachers who thought that even to teach standard western musical notation was to indulge in extreme elitism, claiming that it would inhibit the children's creativity, and was alien to the "working class values of ordinary people". Just imagine not teaching how to write the alphabet, or numbers

This is the beginning of a speech given today to the Incorporated Society of Musicians. To continue reading, click here.

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