How To Establish Credibility In An Essay
The philosopher Aristotle once wrote of three modes of persuasionthree different ways of appealing to your audience. The first two should be fairly familiar: logic (logos) and emotion (pathos). Many forms of business writing use one or both of these modes, but the third is somewhat underrated (and, arguably, of the greatest importance). An appeal to credibility directly concerns the way that the audience perceives the speaker. In other words, its all about convincing your audience to trust and respect you enough for them to take action.
Audiences dont only consider the advertising information they receive; they take the informations source into account as well. Would you be more likely to buy a product recommended by a reliable friend or a shady, grinning stranger? Facts and emotional appeals wont do you much good if your target doesnt believe the source that theyre coming from.
There are many ways to establish credibility in persuasive writing and make your message worthy of your audiences trust.
Know your audience
When you take details about your audience into account, it often helps you say the things that will appeal to them most. For example, if your marketing materials are targeting industry insiders, then using technical jargon will make your voice more authentic and credible. When you know that your product is mainly purchased by parents for their children, you should make sure youre using an appropriate tone in your writing. Make sure you understand how your audience communicates so that this doesnt come across as fakepeople tend to have a good sense of when theyre being pandered to.
This advertising example speaks from the perspective of parents buying clothes for their tweenage daughters, giving more ethos to its audience. Photo Credit: Kelly Caldwell
If you dont know much about your consumers, consider test marketing a sample of people to learn more about their demographics and opinions regarding your brand, offer or product. Not only will this give you valuable data and allow you to pinpoint your target audience, it may result in positive testimonials that you can utilize later.
Back up your claims
Somebody who proclaims that their brand or product is award winning isnt going to sound nearly as reputable as someone who can specifically name the awards that theyve won. Audiences will be more receptive to your claims if you can back them up with evidence.
Bill Clinton demonstrated the value of using facts to support your claims in his DNC speech.
This usually comes down to using statistics and hard facts rather than general statements. Think back to the Democratic National Convention and former President Bill Clintons widely acclaimed speech. One of the main reasons that the speech was so persuasive and well-recieved was that Clinton used specific numbers and statistics to support his claims rather than making sweeping generalizations (a major criticism of the Romney campaign at the time).
Use specific facts and figures whenever possible. You may even want to perform a study to collect statistics related to your product (for example, evaluating the number of experts who endorse your product or measuring some degree of the products effectiveness) and incorporate those statistics into your persuasive writing. Remember that its always better to have too much data than not enough; a customer can always choose to skip over the facts and numbers you present, but they cant take in evidence that supports your claims unless you provide it to them.
Always make sure that the evidence you provide is valid and accurate. If someone chooses to verify your claims and finds your facts and figures to be incorrect, it will damage your reputation. Remember to cite the sources of your information; this will make it easier for readers to follow up on your claims as well as give credit where credit is due.
Cite your sources
When writing academic papers in high school or college, your instructors probably insisted that you cite credible sources every time you stated a fact or made a claim. This same technique lends credibility to persuasive business writing as well.
If you say that your product is recommended by experts or provides a benefit that is scientifically proven, make sure to provide a specific citation of the source whenever possible. This will both help to support your claims and prevent you from accidentally plagiarizing your information.
Most sources can be cited in the text itself. For example:
MoldOut has been scientifically proven to eliminate 99% of mold spores (based on a study by Dr. Karen Torrence of Orange County University).
You may even want to include a URL or other contact info to make it easier for readers to double-check your sources. Consult a writing guide for further details.
Show, dont tell
Implementing the show, dont tell advertising strategy is an excellent way to establish credibility. Most of us are relatively willing to trust ourselves, after all, and thats what this technique is all aboutleading the audience to develop a conclusion on their own.
Directly telling an audience our product is great! is rarely a good idea; not only is it a vague and sales-oriented generalization, it comes across as rather desperate. Instead, your goal should be to convince your audience to realize that the product is great based on the details you provide to them.
If youre selling a minivan, for example, you could detail the various benefits customers would receive by owning the vehicle: safety certifications that ensure their family will stay safe, plenty of room to store supplies for fun camping trips, etc. Thats a much more reputable appeal than simply stating This minivan is safe and fun.
Show your products value by describing benefits rather than simply stating the qualities you want the reader to take away. Photo Credit: Flickr user ElCapitan
Scale back the hyperbole
In small doses, exaggeration and hyperbole can be very useful for copywriters becase they help to appeal to your audience on an emotional level. For instance, a steakhouse with a gruff and manly image might advertise steaks big enough for a monster. Obviously, the business isnt actually advertising to monsters and most audiences are smart enough to realize thisbut this expression helps to create a visceral image of the companys brand personality.
What you should never do, however, is allow your hyperbole to turn into baseless boasting and self-flattery. A few examples:
Our prices are so low, were practically giving away our products!
This is the one product you absolutely cant do without!
Our society is so saturated with advertising these days that most people have developed a mental bunk detector that weeds out these sorts of blatantly exaggerated statements. If youre making claims like these, youd better have the evidence to back them up; otherwise, they just sound like empty hype.
Be realistic and avoid making broad, sweeping statements such as Our product is guaranteed to always stop headaches! Instead, use language that is tentative but still suggest authority; a better alternative would be Our product is highly effective against headaches, according to clinical research.
Misleading your audience (even accidentally) is sure to damage your ethos and discourage prospects from trusting you. Even if its not an outright lie, business writing that stretches the truth can often backfire. Some advertisers will try to fudge the truth by saying things like contains natural ingredients when in fact only a miniscule fraction of the ingredients are natural. If your claims dont hold up under scrutiny, you can be sure that it wont ingratiate you with potential customers.
The classic comedy film Crazy People concerns a marketing specialist with a revolutionary concept: absolute truth in advertising. This results in ads like Buy a Volvo: Theyre Boxy But Theyre Good, leading to complications for our protagonistbut the concept is actually fairly sound. Being completely honest, accurate and upfront about your product (including its faults) can greatly boost your credibility.
This fake ad from the movie Crazy People was meant to be a joke, but being honest with your advertising (even regarding your products faults) is a good way to increase credibility.
You should also never plagiarize your copy from other sources. Its one thing to reference well-known quotes or stories (such as writing a print ad based on the story of the Three Little Pigs), but claiming credit for an idea that isnt yours (such as using another companys tagline) will compromise your entire message.
Provide extra details about your brand
The more data you can provide about your company and brand, the more reason prospects will have to trust you. This could include any of the following:
- Contact information If possible, provide info for multiple contact methods such as phone, e-mail, street address, etc. When customers call or e-mail you, make sure they talk to a human (not a recording or automatic bot) and always follow up right away. This lends extra legitimacy to your business.
- History Long-standing businesses tend to have a greater degree of credibility. If youre highly experienced in your field, be sure to discuss how long youve been in business.
- Affiliations Being a part of a association of partnering companies or organizations can lend prestige and ethos to your advertising. For example, the Green Business Association provides a Green Business seal that eco-friendly companies can place on their materials.
- Photos Whether its a portrait of your CEO or a group shot of various employees, a photograph of the face of your company can help to assure audiences that your business is made up of real people (and not some faceless, shady character scamming people from the shadows). You should also consider including photographs of your product or service so that prospects have the chance to see it before they buy.
Testimonials provide social proof, a phenomenon that leads audiences to take action based on the opinions of others. A positive testimonial from fellow consumers will make it easier for your audience to trust you.
This print ad includes a testimonial and cites the source by name. Photo Credit: Zed Williams
If possible, reach out to specific individuals whom your audience will recognize and ask for an endorsement. Potential customers will be more likely to trust quotes that come from a reputable source such as a well-known personality or community figure.
Provide samples and demonstrations
That old phrase Ill believe it when I see it isnt just a figure of speech. People have a tendency to trust products most when they can interact with them hands-on (or at the very least, see them in action).
There are a variety of ways to implement this technique. You might record a video demonstration of your product or service and upload it to your companys Youtube channel. Consider including a free product sample in your next mailer (as long as youre offering a product that lends itself well to samples). You might also provide free consultations so that customers have a chance to interact with you (and your product) first-hand.
Share your knowledge
If youre considered an expert in your field, you already have a fantastic source of credibility. Make that resource known by offering your knowledge to the rest of your community.
Offer free and honest advice to your customers; theyll be more likely to trust you and recommend you to others. Taking part in conferences and trade shows is a good way to establish yourself as a thought leader or subject matter expert. You can even share knowledge through your companys website by offering informational webinars, podcasts or blog posts.
Whenever possible, put your customers at ease by reducing the amount of risk required for them to take action. The fewer roadblocks and pitfalls in the way of their purchase, the more theyll be able to trust in you.
A good risk-reduction can help make up for other areas where your communication may lack credibility. For example, a money-back guarantee allows customers to feel confident that even if your product isnt what you claim it to be, theyll be compensated for their purchase.
Establish an online presence
When people hear about a product or service that intrigues them, often the first thing they do is head straight to Google. If their search for your brand comes up empty, how trustworthy do you think youll appear in their eyes?
Be sure to set up a website and/or a social media account on sites such as Facebook. It doesnt have to stop there, either; try writing guest blog posts or encouraging other users to review your products. Even commenting on other blogs related to your industry will help to legitimize your brand.
Having an online presence (such as a Facebook page, for example) helps to increase your ethos when users seek you out on the Web. Photo Credit: Ilie Nimigean
Get in the news
When your company is newsworthy, it gives your image authority and makes it more reputable. Build up your public relations to make your business attractive to the media. Send press releases to media outlets you respectwhether thats a local paper or a national magazine related to your industry. If you can get journalists to feature you in their work, it wont only increase your exposureitll make your business more credible.
After youve been covered in the media, this becomes a testimonial of sorts; you can include the reference in your advertising by saying things like featured in [magazine] or as seen on [TV show]. Dont forget to highlight the story on your blog or social media accounts, as well.
Use unique, professional marketing materials
Your physical marketing materials (including business cards, presentation folders and promotional gifts such as pens) often end up being the major representative of your companys image. If theyre unprofessional or shoddy-looking, audiences are unlikely to take you very seriously.
Take the time to ensure that every piece of your marketing collateral is designed to match your message, brand and target audience. You should also proofread every bit of copy for printing errors, typos and mistakes. Even a relatively minor mistake can end up being a major blow to your ethos.
It helps to have materials that arent just technically accurate but visually distinctive as well. Whenever possible, be sure to use unique, original photos rather than stock photography or images youve already used in the past. Using the same, tired images that customers have already seen dozens of times before just makes your company look lazy.
Establishing an ethos is of utmost importance because no marketing technique can succeed without first gaining credibility; building a rapport with your reader should always be a major priority. By making your writing and advertising accurate and reputable, youll ensure that the entire campaign is more effective.
Do you know of more ways to establish credibility in writing or advertising? Feel free to leave your thoughts in the comments below.
Posted in Copywriting, Marketing
Using Research and Evidence
These OWL resources will help you develop and refine the arguments in your writing.
Contributors: Stacy Weida, Karl Stolley
What type of evidence should I use?
There are two types of evidence.
First hand research is research you have conducted yourself such as interviews, experiments, surveys, or personal experience and anecdotes.
Second hand research is research you are getting from various texts that has been supplied and compiled by others such as books, periodicals, and Web sites.
Regardless of what type of sources you use, they must be credible. In other words, your sources must be reliable, accurate, and trustworthy.
How do I know if a source is credible?
You can ask the following questions to determine if a source is credible.
Who is the author? Credible sources are written by authors respected in their fields of study. Responsible, credible authors will cite their sources so that you can check the accuracy of and support for what they've written. (This is also a good way to find more sources for your own research.)
How recent is the source? The choice to seek recent sources depends on your topic. While sources on the American Civil War may be decades old and still contain accurate information, sources on information technologies, or other areas that are experiencing rapid changes, need to be much more current.
What is the author's purpose? When deciding which sources to use, you should take the purpose or point of view of the author into consideration. Is the author presenting a neutral, objective view of a topic? Or is the author advocating one specific view of a topic? Who is funding the research or writing of this source? A source written from a particular point of view may be credible; however, you need to be careful that your sources don't limit your coverage of a topic to one side of a debate.
What type of sources does your audience value? If you are writing for a professional or academic audience, they may value peer-reviewed journals as the most credible sources of information. If you are writing for a group of residents in your hometown, they might be more comfortable with mainstream sources, such as Time or Newsweek. A younger audience may be more accepting of information found on the Internet than an older audience might be.
Be especially careful when evaluating Internet sources! Never use Web sites where an author cannot be determined, unless the site is associated with a reputable institution such as a respected university, a credible media outlet, government program or department, or well-known non-governmental organizations. Beware of using sites like Wikipedia, which are collaboratively developed by users. Because anyone can add or change content, the validity of information on such sites may not meet the standards for academic research.