Academic Essay References
Hi there! Welcome to Writing and Citation Support for TRU students.
This site was created for all TRU students; abroad, international and domestic. On this site you will be able to find numerous helpful tips and advice on how to successfully write an academic essay or report. However, we recommend that you check with your professor to make sure the resources you are using are appropriate for the essay or assignment.
In the Researching Tab you will see many different guides on your academic topics, and also some guides on how to find good sources.
On the Researching Subpages, you will find advice on how to pick your topic, plan your search for resources, and explain the different types of sources you may want to use in your essay.
In the Writing Tab you will find some essay templates, information on developing a thesis, and other writing tips.
On the Writing Subpages, you will find an ESAL (English as a Secondary Additional Language) page which has advice for international students and will give guidance on writing essays in North America. You will also find an Essay Examples page which will provide numerous examples of reports and essays within the different disciplines (Business, Science, Physics, and many more)
The Citation Tab has an interesting video which teaches how to use citations. You can also find links on different citation formats.
On the Citations Subpages, you will find worksheets and activities to practice the skill of citing, essay examples for MLA, APA, CSE, and Chicago, descriptions on when, how, and why to use quotations, and videos to show you how to create a proper paraphrase.
The Plagiarism Tab has a video which teaches you how to avoid plagiarism when writing a report or essay.
On the Plagiarism Subpages, you will find basic information on plagiarism, what it is, the different types, and practice sheets on how to avoid plagiarism.
APA Referencing Example:
Guralnik, Ferrucci, Simonsick, Salive and Wallace () claimed that good nutrition and a physically active lifestyle have known benefits for prolonging functional independence and reducing the risk of disability, institutionalisation and mortality among older adults. "While improved dietary choices are seen to have a positive impact on normal ageing" (Drewnowski & Evans, , p. 90), participation in regular physical activity is associated with improved ability in daily tasks, a decreased risk of falls and a decrease in the symptoms of chronic disease (Faber, Bosscher, Chin, & van Wieringen, ; Fiatarone et al., ). Even commenced later in life, and independent of disease or disability, research shows that a physically active lifestyle is an essential component of prolonged capacity in activities of daily living, referred to as functional wellbeing (Sims et al., ). However, while it has been reported that older adults are aware of the benefits of physical activity, less than 30% adhere to the national prescribed guidelines (Manini, Druger & Ploutz-Snyder, ; Marquez, Bustamante, Blissmer, & Prohaska, ).
At baseline, Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to investigate the associations between all variables. A strong association was defined as a moderate to large correlation, > and > , respectively (Cohen, ).
With the aim of improving nutritional and activity choices for individuals and families, educators encourage greater knowledge of health, education, welfare, neighbourhoods and food supply by promoting environmental and individual barrier awareness to healthy eating and physical activity (Bartholomew, Parcel, Kok, Gottlieb, & Fernandez, ).
Ageing and nutrition is a growing global challenge as life expectancy increases, particularly for women. For example, the incidence of osteoporosis in older women involves its own special nutritional needs, emphases and patterns of malnutrition (World Health Organization [WHO], a). Furthermore WHO (a) reveals in almost all countries women comprise the majority of the older population. Nutrient profiling assists to determine nutritional composition related to disease prevention (WHO, b).
"Financial security, social networks and level of education are all factors in successful ageing, and reinforce the need for broad multifactorial modelling" (Marquez et al., , p. 15). In the present study, individuals were members of a social network of independently funded retirees which may explain their physically active lifestyle when compared to the norm for their age group. However, these factors were not measured, nor accounted for in any of the data analysis (LaFrenz, ).
Bartholomew, L. K., Parcel, G. S., Kok, G., Gottlieb, N. H., & Fernandez, M. E. (). Planning health promotion programs: An intervention mapping approach. Retrieved from woaknb.wz.sk?p=
Chodzko-Zajko, W., Schwingel, A., & Park, C. (). Successful aging: The role of physical activity. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 3(1), doi: /
Cohen, J. (). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Drewnowski, A., & Evans, W. (). Nutrition, physical activity, and quality of life in older adults: Summary. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Science, 56(2), doi: /gerona/suppl_
Faber, M., Bosscher, R., Chin, A., & van Wieringen, P. (). Effects of exercise programs on falls and mobility in frail and pre-frail older adults: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87(5), Retrieved from woaknb.wz.sk
Fiatarone, M., Marks, E., Ryan, N., Meredith, C., Lipsitz L. A., & Evans, W. (). High-intensity strength training in nonagenarians: Effects on skeletal muscle. Journal of the American Medical Association, (1), Retrieved from woaknb.wz.sk
Guralnik, J., Ferrucci, L., , E., Salive, MSimonsick., & Wallace, R. (). Lower-extremity function in persons over the age of 70 years as a predictor of subsequent disability. North English Journal of Medicine, (4),
LaFrenz, C. (, December 5). Financial security: Start saving before middle age; Take a long-term view of retirement. The Adelaide Advertiser. Retrieved from woaknb.wz.sk?accountid=
Manini, T., Druger, M., & Ploutz-Snyder, L. (). Misconceptions about strength exercise among older adults. Journal of Ageing and Physical Activity, 13(1), Retrieved from woaknb.wz.sk
Marquez, D., Bustamante, E., Blissmer, B., & Prohaska, T. (). Health promotion for successful aging. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 12(7), doi: /
Sims, J., Hill, K., Hunt, S., Haralambous, B., Brown, A., Engel, L.,… Ory, M. (). National physical activity recommendations for older Australians: Discussion document. Retrieved from woaknb.wz.sk$File/woaknb.wz.sk
World Health Organization. (a).Nutrition for older persons. Retrieved from woaknb.wz.sk
World Health Organization. (b). Nutrient profiling. Retrieved from woaknb.wz.sk
Note: The document above is an example of the layout and format of an essay paper in APA woaknb.wz.sk document is not a referencing guide. Use the APA Style Guide to compile your citation and reference list.