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Bibliography Oxford Referencing And Citation

Oxford style uses a note citation system. It is also referred to as a documentary-note system. It has two components:

In-text citation: consists of two parts:

A superscript number in the text

A note at the bottom of the page (footnote). Notes are numbered sequentially, beginning with 1 in superscript, throughout each article, chapter, or paper.

Author's given name or initial before the last name (e.g. John Smith) then cites the title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, the page reference. If you refer to the same work again in the footnotes, use only the author's last name and the page number(s). If you refer to more than one work by the same author, use the author's last name then a short title and page number(s).

ibid. is used to indicate that the previous reference has been used again.

Direct quotations should be enclosed with single quotation marks.

Reference list:

References are listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name. If you have cited more than one work by the same author, you should arrange them by date. References with no author are ordered in the reference list alphabetically by the first significant word of the title.

Use only the initials of the authors' given names. Use full stops with no spaces between the initials. Last name comes first.

Here is an example that cites the book with one author using Oxford style.

In-text citation

Reference list


1 C Neville, The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism, 2nd edn, Open University Press, New York, , p. 25

Neville, C, The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism, 2nd edn, Open University Press, New York,

MHRA referencing distinguishes between citations for primary texts (e.g. novels, poems etc) and secondary texts (e.g. critical works, additional information).

Most in-text citations are in footnotes. Full details (including editions and translation details if appropriate) should be included in the footnotes for the first mention of a text for both primary and secondary texts. After this, a shortened version can be used, either in brackets in the body of the text, or in footnotes. Whichever method you choose, be consistent.

Examples for primary and secondary texts:

In-text, first mention, primary text: (in footnote) Emily Dickinson, The Complete Poems, ed. by Thomas H. Johnson (London: Faber, ) p. All further references to this text are from this edition and are given parenthetically in the essay.

In-text, following mentions, primary text: (in body of text) (Dickinson, p) or (p)

In-text, first mention, secondary text: (in footnote) Brian Vickers, Francis Bacon and Renaissance Prose (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ) p.

In-text, following mentions, secondary text: (in footnote) Vickers, p.

In bibliography, primary and secondary texts: Emily Dickinson, The Complete Poems, ed. by Thomas H. Johnson (London: Faber, ).

For more information (but always check your course handbook first):

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